Furness Railway


Just 100 years ago the first section of the Furness Railway was opened for traffic.  Stating primarily as a mineral carrying line, it eventually became notable for the facilities it offered to the tourist who wished to explore the beauties of the English Lake District.

In many ways the Furness was unique among the smaller British Railways prior to the 1923 grouping.  In the area which it finally served it held undisputed sway and not only handled vast quantities of mineral traffic, but ran through, or close to, some of the loveliest country in Britain.  By dint of a bold policy of development at Barrow-in-Furness, the Company played a leading part in the rise of a small village with a population of a few hundreds, into a city of many thousands in a few decades.

In this little book I have tried to tell the story of the development of the Furness Railway and the other concerns which were merged into it from time to time.  I was little more than a boy when it was swallowed up in the London Midland and Scottish system, but my affection for the railway remains.  With all its short-comings, one felt that the old Furness Railway really had the interests of the territory it served at heart, which is more than one can say of its mighty successor to-day.

I would like to express my thanks to the numerous people who have supplied me with both useful information and photographs, including MESSRS. ROBERT STEPHENSON and HAWTHORNS of Darlington, and MESSRS. PECKETT and SONS of Bristol.  My thanks are also due to the chief Publicity Officer of the London Midland and Scottish Railway Company for valuable co-operation, and to both The Locomotive Publishing Company and Messrs. Abrahams, of Keswick, for permission to reproduce certain illustrations.  Finally there has been the valuable assistance of my old friend and colleague SYDNEY BUCKLEY who has designed the title page and drawn the maps and gradient diagrams.

If those who read this book get as much pleasure out of reading it as I have done in writing it, then my job has been well worth while.


Altrincham, 1946 


Chapter 1

The Furness Railway 1846-1860


The Furness Railway had its beginnings in two short lines which linked the little port of Piel with Kirby-in-Furness ( on the southern shore of the Duddon Estuary)  and Dalton-in-Furness.  The company came into being largely through the energy and enterprise of WILLIAM, Earl of Burlington.  This gentleman afterwards became the 7th Earl of Devonshire.  He had considerable land and financial interests in the Furness district of Lancashire.  Among these interests were the extensive slate quarries on the hills behind Kirby which bear his name to this day.

In the early years of the 19th Century the extensive deposits of hematite iron ore in the Dalton area were being rapidly exploited, and the ore had to be carted to the coast for shipment.  Slate from the Burlington quarries had to be dealt with in a similar manner.  Like the Earl of Lonsdale further north, the Earl of Burlington was fully alive to the potentialities of railways and realised how the movement of both iron ore and slates could be expedited by the building of a line.  Thus he became the prime mover in the formation of the Furness Company.

In corporation took place in 1844, the same year as the Midland Railway.  Since the Furness retained its original title down to 1923, it was only beaten in age by the Great Western and Maryport and Carlisle Railways, among those concerns which kept their original title throughout their independent existence.

Actually a scheme for a short railway in the Furness area was put forward in 1843 by a MR. JOHN ABEL SMITH.  This was for the construction of a short embankment or causeway, carrying a railway on it, to run from Piel on to Roa Island.  MR. SMITH  described his plan in the following terms:

"To connect Roa Island with the neighbouring Island of Great Britain; for the construction of a pier at Piel, and for the development of that portion of the natural harbour as a place for import and export, and for the conveyance of passengers by steam-propelled vessels. "

MR. SMITH also prepared a scale of tolls for carrying goods.  He evidently anticipated a very diverse trade as he included in his list tolls for carrying tropical produce (including turtles); fiddles and corpses.  His charges for the musical instruments were 2d. each and for bodies, 1 pound.

The original terminus of the Furness was at Rampside and the first section consisted of the line from Kirby to Dalton (6 miles and 69 chains), together with the connecting link from Goldmire Junction to Rampside and Piel ( 6 miles and 13 chains).  MESSRS. TREDWELLS were the contractors for the construction:  MR. JAMES RAMSDEN was the first Locomotive Engineer;  MR. A. CURREY the Secretary, and MR. McLEAN the Engineer.

At a meeting of the Company held in London on November 1st, 1845, it was announced that 70,000 pounds Capital had been subscribed and it was proposed to increase this to 100,000 pounds.  In anticipation of a larger flow of traffic as time went on, the earthworks of the lines from both Dalton and Kirby were made wide enough to enable the track to be doubled without difficulty.  This wise move was justified, for the line from Dalton Junction to Rampside was doubled within a year of the opening.  After only six months life as a operating concern, the Furness Railway paid its shareholders  4 1/2 %.

The line was inspected by the Board of Trade on August 3rd, 1846, and opened for traffic on August 12th.  Probably because the railway was built primarily for mineral traffic, there does not seem to have been any special opening ceremony.  The first trainload of slates from Kirby was carried over the line the day after the opening.  This was a load of 100 tons  for shipment to Ireland.

During a single week in August the steamer run by MR. ABEL SMITH between Fleetwood and Piel carried no less than 1,500 passengers and of these over 500 were visitors to the ruins of Furness Abbey.

In 1844 the output from the iron mines in the Dalton and Lindal areas amounted to over 100,000 tons, all of which was carted to Piel.  This tonnage, which was to increase steadily, now went entirely by rail.  But in spite of the fact that mineral traffic was to be the mainstay of the infant Furness, the directors had other objects in view.  When the Furness opened their first section, both the Whitehaven and Furness Junction Railway to the north and the Lancashire and Carlisle Railway to the south, were in process of construction.  The Furness directorate already had plans to link up with both these concerns and as early as 1845 they commenced negotiations with a view to extending their line to Ulverston.  Powers were obtained 1846 to do so, but nothing further transpired for the time being:  Ulverston regarded itself as " too exclusive: to tolerate the presence of such a "new-fangled" idea as a railway.

To the north, however, the situation was different.  There was no opposition and the Furness was eager to extend from Kirby to Broughton-in-Furness.  At the latter place they could pick up the traffic in copper ore from the mines near Coniston.  This was being carted from the foot of Coniston Lake, after being brought down there in barges.  These barges were large iron affairs, constructed by JOHN WILKINSON who built the first Iron bridge in England.  This was at Ironbridge in Shropshire.  WILKINSON was born in 1728 at Clifton, near Workington.

Not long after the opening of the line to Dalton and to Kirby, work was commenced on the extension to Broughton-in-Furness.  This was opened in 1848.  By this time the six "BURY" locomotives were becoming hard put to it to cope with the increasing mineral traffic and passenger trains which were also being provided.

In 1848 the Earl of Burlington became chairman of the board of directors, taking the place of his representative, MR. BENJAMIN CURREY.  Two years later,  MR. BENJAMIN CURREY resigned from his position as Secretary and MR. JAMES RAMSDEN became both Secretary and General Manager.

By 1851, Ulverston had become more amenable to railway communication and a start was made on the extension from Dalton.  This reached Lindal ( 1 mile and 53 chains )  in the same year, but Ulverston did not receive the line until 1854.  The delay was due largely to the somewhat heavy cuttings involved in the construction which slowed up progress.  The length of the extension from Lindal to Ulverston was 2 miles and 68 chains, with a falling gradient towards Ulverston of 1 in 76 at the steepest point.

In 1851  the Company encountered its first " spot of bother. "  They had been using MR. JAMES ABEL SMITH'S  "causeway"  line from Rampside to Piel, but evidently the relations between that gentleman and the company had become strained for the Furness now sought powers to make a new railway of their own from Lindal to Piel.  Ultimately negotiations with MR. SMITH resulted in the Furness leasing the  " causeway  " and Piel pier for 999 years.  This was in 1852.  All now seemed to be well, but an " act of God: intervened in the shape of a violent storm which broke over the coast on December 23rd 1852.  During this storm a large goods shed on Roa island was blown down; all the ships in Piel harbour except one were driven ashore and the entire length of the causeway was destroyed.  Unfortunately this storm occurred just after the whole " sep-up:  between Rampside and Piel had been valued for the purpose of arbitration between MR. SMITH and the Furness Company.  The latter now refused to accept the valuation, while MR. SMITH stuck out for its acceptance.  Eventually however the Law Courts were avoided and in 1853 the Furness purchased both the pier and the remaining property.

While all this wrangling about Piel had been going on, the Company had been taking steps to develop the little town of Barrow-in-Furness as a port.  From here a certain MR. SCHNEIDER had already begun to run screw steamers to Fleetwood and other places across Morecambe Bay.  While the process of development at Barrow was going on, it was felt that Piel would continue to be a useful "side-line"  during such time as the shipping traffic across the bay continued to be remunerative.

By 1855 things were going well.  Passenger traffic was up to 145,000 fares a year;  Ulverston had been reached and a dividend of 6% had been declared.  The iron ore traffic had gone up by leaps and bounds and by 1856 reached a tonnage of 445,000, all of which was shipped from Barrow, as the smelting furnaces had not yet been established there.  Slate traffic from the Burlington quarries was 10,000 tons annually.

These big increases in traffic brought the need for doubling of considerable portions of the track.  Crooklands to Lindal was the first section to be tackled.  This involved the enlarging of Crooklands tunnel and the contract for the job was let to MESSRS. TREDWELLS for 25,000 pounds.  Doubling was also carried out between Salthouse Junction and Barrow.  At the latter, dredging operations were commenced to improve shipping facilities and in 1855 some Steam Tugs were purchased for the harbour.

In the year 1859 an event took place which set the seal on the future prosperity of the Furness Railway.  This was the establishing at Barrow of the Ironworks of MESSRS. SCHNEIDER & HANNAY.  In the previous year (1858)  this firm had bought land from the Furness at Hindpool on which to build their plant.  This eventually became the steelworks and blast furnace plant of the Barrow Hematite Steel Company.

With the setting up of the smelting plant at Hindpool the Furness lost most of the shipment traffic in iron ore, since the bulk of this was now smelted locally; but this loss was more than offset by the pig iron and coke traffic which resulted from the establishment of MESSRS. SCHNEIDER & HANNAY'S works.  There were three furnaces in blast at the beginning of 1860.

During the next five years the Furness took over three other companies.  These were the Ulverston & Lancaster  (in 1862);  The Coniston  (in 1862)  and the Whitehaven & Furness Junction ( in 1866).  The history and fortunes of these three companies are dealt with in the next two chapters.




The Ulverston and Lancaster and The Coniston Railways


The first proposal to make a railway from Ulverston to link up with the Lancaster & Carlisle Railway at Carnforth was made, oddly enough, by the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Company.  A Bill, embodying the scheme, was presented to Parliament in 1845.  Unfortunately it failed to comply with Standing orders and got no further.  As the Furness Railway had already been authorised at this time and was in the initial stages of construction, it seemed rather odd that the latter company were not perturbed by the enterprise of the W. & F. J. R.  Apparently they were not worried, for they expressed their regret to the Whitehaven Company when their Bill failed.

As related in the preceding chapter, the overtures made by the Furness to Ulverston regarding the extension of their line to that town were coldly received by the inhabitants.  It was not until 1851 that the Ulverston & Lancaster Company was incorporated and then largely due to the energies of a Manchester family by name of BROGDEN.  One of this family, MR. ALEXANDER BROGDEN, lived at Ulverston.

The U. & L. met with difficulties from its inception.  The district through which it passed was largely agricultural and sparsely populated and the course which it followed involved the bridging of the Leven and Kent Estuaries.  Many miles of embankment to prevent damage and encroachment by the sea had also to be constructed.  After meeting with a number of snags, the line was eventually opened in 1857.  The two estuaries were bridged by wooden viaducts.  The latter were regarded as marvellous feats of engineering and were described as "sufficiently strong to resist any weight or strain that would ever be put upon them. "  The total length of the line when opened was 19 miles and 35 chains.

From its inception. The U. & L. R. was closely linked with the Furness.  On several occasions when financial crises arose, the company was "tided over" by loans from the Duke of Devonshire and Buccleuch.  Moreover the Secretary of the Furness Railway, MR. JAMES RAMSDEN, was also Secretary of the U. & L.

The Ulverston & Lancaster never owned any locomotives, motive power being provided by the Furness on a hire basis from the opening of the line.  Some coaches and wagons do appear to have been owned.  This is borne out by the fact that in 1860, following the declaration of a 5% dividend, the Company proposed to erect workshops at Cark where repairs to their own rolling stock could be carried out.  Before this the Furness had under-taken all repair work.

A small dividend was paid in 1859, but it was not until 1861 that the U. & L. got out of financial low water.  Prosperity came to the little concern through MESSRS. SCHNEIDER & HANNAY'S blast furnaces being set up at Hindpool.  This brought a steady flow of traffic to the South and was mainly responsible for the 5% dividend in 1860.  However this new flow of traffic benefited the U. & L. is shown in the traffic returns for one week in 1861.  The carrying of 1,878 passengers brought in 132 pounds 5s. 6d.  and goods traffic earned 592 pounds 18s. 5d.; making a revenue for the week of 725 pounds 3s. 11d.  This showed an increase for the week of 250 pounds over the corresponding period in 1860.  but the days of the U. & L. were numbered as an independent concern and in 1862 the Furness took over on a 6% basis.  The latter also acquired the Ulverston Canal which had been constructed as far back as 1793 and was partly owned by the BROGDEN family.

Although known as the Ulverston & Lancaster Railway, the line did not extend beyond Carnforth, where it made connection with the Lancaster & Carlisle Railway, which was in turn absorbed into the London and North-Western.  There were five intermediate stations on the line; Cark, Kents Bank, Grange-over Sands, Arnside and Silverdale.

Like the Ulverston & Lancaster, the Coniston Railway was closely associated with the Furness Railway from its birth.  The company was formed in 1857 and that redoubtable pair, the Duke of Devonshire and MR. JAMES RAMSDEN were once again Chairman, and Secretary and General Manager respectively.  Eight miles and 67 chains long, the line from Broughton to Coniston was opened for passenger traffic on June 1st, 1859.  There were two intermediate stations at Woodland and Torver.  There is a continuous climb from Broughton through Woodland to within a short distance of Torver, with a maximum gradient of 1 in 49 starting out of Broughton-in-Furness station.

The line was originally projected to link up with the Furness Railway at Broughton and thus offer a through route for transporting copper ore from the Coniston mines to the sea for shipment.  As mentioned in the previous chapter this traffic had previously been sent to the foot of Coniston Lake by barge and thence by road to Piel.

From the opening of the Coniston Railway locomotives were supplied by the Furness and the two concerns were amalgamated in 1862.  The only traces of the original company to be seen to-day are one or two old rails and chairs in sidings labelled "C.R."  The copper ore traffic ceased many years ago and to-day the Coniston branch relies, as it has done for a long time, on passenger traffic which is pretty considerable to the tourist season.

Between Woodland and Torver the line reaches a height, of 345 feet above sea-level, which is the highest point on the Furness system.



The Whitehaven and Furness Junction Railway


Prior to 1866, the section of the Furness Railway northwards from Foxfield Junction to Whitehaven led an independent existence as the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway.

In the early years of the 19th Century, Cumberland was ahead of North Lancashire in railway development.  Before the construction of the Furness Railway had begun, the Maryport & Carlisle Railway Company had been formed and the construction of the Whitehaven Junction Railway from Whitehaven to Maryport had been started.

The chief reason for Cumberland's lead was the enterprise of William, 2nd Earl of Lonsdale.  Owning a number of coal mines in Whitehaven (as well as a considerable amount of land in and around the town,)  he was anxious to open up communications between his mines and other parts of the country by all possible means.  The idea of "rail-ways" was no unknown in Whitehaven, for as early as 1738 iron rails had been laid on the "wagon-ways" over which the coal chaldrons were run from the pits down to the ships in the harbour.

Perhaps the biggest factor in the railway development of West Cumberland was the great personal friendship between the Earl of Lonsdale and George Stephenson, the great railway engineer.  It was on account of this friendship that Stephenson was appointed as Consulting Engineer to the Whitehaven Junction Railway.  As early as 1836, Stephenson had formulated a scheme for a coastal line from Cumberland down into Central Lancashire.  This was to be known as "The Great West Coast Railway."  In its conception the famous engineer not only \showed the magnitude of his planning, but also proved that he was at least 100 years ahead of his time with his ideas.  From the sketch map on page 8 it can be seen that Stephenson proposed to bridge both the Duddon Estuary and Morecambe Bay.

At a Public Meeting held in Whitehaven on April 21st 1838, and attended by the :residents of Cumberland and Furness: the full details of the great railway scheme were revealed, and one of the resolutions passed by the meeting makes interesting reading: her it is:

" That from the opinion of scientific persons of great intelligence, expressed in documents and in correspondence now read, the West Cumberland Line is not only more eligible as a connecting line between England and Scotland, than the mountainous line via Shap, but the crossing of Morecambe Bay and Duddon Estuary by an Embankment ( the greatest difficulty to be encountered on the line)  is a work certainly practicable and easy of execution under the direction of able engineers practised in such under-takings."

It was also announced at the above meeting that a sum of £ 880 had been raised by subscriptions to pay for a survey of the route.  The surveyor employed was a London engineer named Hague, who had carried out a 36,000 acre drainage scheme in the Fen country between Ely and Kin's Lynn, and was felt to have had the right type of experience for the survey now to be undertaken.

MR. HAGUE reported favourably, going so far as to offer to undertake to build the Duddon and Morecambe Bay crossings "off his own bat"  - provided the promoters would make him a present of half the re-claimed land which would result.  As the full amount of the latter was estimated at 52,000 acres (46,300 in Morecambe Bay and 3,700 in Duddon,) MR. HAGUE evidently thought he was on a good thing!

The cost of the two crossings were put at £ 362,861 for Morecambe Bay and £ 71,270 for the Duddon Estuary.  MR. HAGUE allowed in his estimate for tide gates on the Bay embankment and the re-direction of the Leven and Crake rivers to form a shipping basin close to the entrance to Ulverston Canal.  The lengths of the embankments were to be 10 miles 51 chains and 1 mile 65 chains respectively.

This report was received on December 1st, 1838 and acclaimed as satisfactory, but as time went on it was found impossible to raise what seemed a huge sum for those days, and this plan had to be abandoned.  Even to-day, nearly 110 years later, the Duddon Crossing has never got past the talking stage, and the Morecambe Bay project is as remote from realisation as the Channel Tunnel.  Some years before the World War a wonderful "new" plan for a West Coast Main Road which followed in line of Stephenson's West Coast Railway was produced and given much publicity in the North-Western press.  There was nothing new about it, as it was merely Stephenson's original plan in road form.

But the return to the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway.  As already stated, George Stephenson had been appointed Consulting Engineer to the Whitehaven Junction Railway to Maryport, and in 1844 he visited West Cumberland.  Riding over the countryside south of Whitehaven with the Earl of Lonsdale (who had been a keen supporter of the original West Coast Railway plan,) the famous engineer pointed out its suitability for building a railway to the south to further the development of the mineral wealth of the area.  Stephenson succeeded so well in impressing the Noble Earl with his arguments that His Lordship shortly afterwards formed a committee of "local gentlemen" and issued the first prospectus of the Whitehaven and Furness Junction Railway.  The Act incorporating the new company was dated April 21st, 1847, and the shares were rapidly taken up.  Unfortunately a trade slump set in shortly after the incorporation and this was followed by the great "railway panic" and for a time the outlook for the new line looked gloomy.  The directors were advised to take advantage of the Joint Stock Companies Act, as the line would never pay.  In spite of this Lord Lonsdale, who was chairman of the company, and his directors refused to be deterred and the construction of the line commenced in 1847.

The original starting point was the Newtown station at Preston Street, Whitehaven, which was later altered to the present goods depot.  From there the route followed was the same as to-day with the same stations, except that Millom and Green Road were known between Bootle and Silecroft, and at Kirksanton, between Silecroft and Millom: these were used on market days only.  From Holborn Hill it was originally proposed that the railway should be carried across the Duddon estuary on an embankment and bridge to Ireleth, near Askam.  Here a junction with the Furness line to Kirby-in-Furness was to be made.  However, as construction proceeded the Duddon crossing was again found to be too costly and additional capital for the scheme could not be raised.  The original plan was therefore modified and the W. & F. J. was continued from Holborn Hill along the northern shores of the Duddon to join the Furness line at Broughton-in-Furness.  By taking this course, only a short viaduct across the River Duddon at the top of the Estuary near Foxfield was required.  This was built to timber and was always know locally as :the spile bridge."

MR. DEES was the Engineer and the Contractors were MESSRS. FELL, JOPLIN, RIGG & BROTHERTON.  The line was single throughout,  apart from passing loops at the stations.

On July 1st 1850, the section from Whitehaven to Bootle was opened to public traffic.  A service of four trains each way on weekdays and two each way on Sundays was provided.  There was also an additional weekday evening trip from Whitehaven to St. Bees and back and a Sunday afternoon run to Sellafield and back.

Of the trains provided, the 9.30 a.m. from Whitehaven and the 4.35 p.m. from Bootle were the "crack" runs.  Each took 75 minutes to cover the 20 miles, including eight stops.  These two trains gave connections to and from Preston, Liverpool and Manchester.  These Lancashire cities were reached by taking a coach from Bootle to Broughton-in-Furness; Furness train from there to Piel Pier, and steamer fro Piel across Morecambe Bay to Fleetwood from whence rail travel was again resumed.  Preston was reached at 6.45 p.m.; Manchester at 8.50 p.m., and Liverpool at 9.0 p.m.

In the north-bound direction there was no connection shown from Manchester; but departures from Liverpool and Preston were at 5.30 a.m. and 7.15 a.m. respectively.  Arrival time at Whitehaven was 5.50 p.m.

In both directions connections were given to and from Carlisle, Maryport and Workington, via Whitehaven.  These two trains carried 1st and 2nd class passengers only.

Of the other three trains in either direction, two each way were described as :mineral and 3rd class.:  They required slightly over two hours to do the journey and were probably a counterpart of a modern :roadside goods: with a few 3rd class coaches attached.  The remaining trip up and down the line was :1st and 2nd class and goods.:  This took 1 1/2 hours and gave connections to and from the North only.

On Sundays no connections to places outside the system were given, except off the afternoon trip from Sellafield to Whitehaven.  This train enabled passengers to reach Carlisle the same evening.

The tunnel from Corkickle to Bransty Station at Whitehaven was not completed until 1852.  Up to then there was a "break" between Preston Street terminus and the Whitehaven Junction line at Bransty, although there was a physical link between the two systems.  This was in the form of a mineral line which ran from the back of Preston Street through the Whitehaven Market Place on the West Strand of the Whitehaven harbour.  In order to reach Bransty station by this line a double reversal was necessary; once on the West Strand, and again at the northern end of the dockside line back into Bransty station.  That portion of the track which ran through the Whitehaven Market and also threw off a short spur to serve what was then a flour and corn mill, was not removed until after the 1914-1918 War,  although it had been disused for many years previously.  In any event this dubious method of getting by rail from one station to the other was never used by passenger trains; the purpose of the line being for the transportation of iron ore and pig iron to the harbour for shipment from the Cleator district mines and furnaces.

During 1850 the construction of the line to Broughton was pushed on vigorously and after being duly inspected by the Board of Trade Inspector on October 28th, the W. & F. J. was opened through its length.  The connection with the Furness at Broughton was not "end-on" but an inverted "y," with the tail of the letter pointing towards Consiton.

The following is an extract of an account which appeared in "The Whitehaven Herald,"   of November 2, 1850, describing the opening trip made by the directors and their friends over the line:

"The Whitehaven & Furness Line, as we have said, having been surveyed and approved by the Government Inspector, was opened on Tuesday last.  The event was celebrated by a select party of some sixty gentlemen, invited by the Chairman of the Board, the Earl of Lonsdale, and the Directors.  The greater number, including the Noble Earl and his co-directors, started from the Newtown Station, Whitehaven, at half-past 9.a.m.  The morning was beautifully fine, and the party, snorting fire-horse, rattling carriages and all went on their way rejoicing.  The valley of St. Bees, other than which there is no lovelier, passed in an eye-twinkle.  At. St. Bees the company was joined by the Rev. Canon Parkinson.  Then onward flew the firmly-linked, safe-going train, as if conscious of its thrice precious burden - the local Caesar and his fortunes, the civic and patrician heads of Whitehaven, and the learned and reverend Head of the College of St. Bees."

A description of the line throughout its length to Broughton follows, written in similar strain.  At the southern terminus of the railway, a band of musicians and flying colours greeted the arrival of the train and the scene is thus described:

"A pretty triumphal arch of evergreens had been erected in front of the station and the road thence to 'The Old King's Head,'  where 'mine host'  TYSON rules the Roast, was decorated with garden and forest spoils of similar character."

Shortly after the arrival at Broughton of the Special from Whitehaven, a Furness "Special"  also steamed in from Furness Abbey.  This brought the EARL OF BURLINGTON, his youthful son LORD CAVENDISH, the HON. FREDERICK HOWARD and other gentlemen.  They also repaired to the "Old King's Head"  to join the Whitehaven party.  Here, in the words of the press report:

" A sumptious dinner was on the table at 1 o'clock, prepared with all the culinary tact and skill which have made MRS. > TYSON one of the most popular landladies, whilst wines, including champagne of equally good quality followed in abundance." 

In his speech on the future of the W. & F. J. R., LORD LONSDALE referred to the proposed Ulverston and Lancaster Railway which would give his company access to the south, via the Furness metals.

After dealing with the early difficulties of his own concern, the Noble Earl said he was glad to learn that there was a strong feeling in favour of other lines to join theirs and the Furness.  One of these was the Coniston and other, crossing Morecambe Bay, to the Lancaster and Carlisle line.  The shortest line would be the best and it would cheer the company present to know that there was now enough money to complete the last-mentioned-a line of very great importance - as it would open up the district to the trade of West Yorkshire and the East of Lancashire.

After referring to the mineral wealth of the area served by both companies, LORD LONSDALE proposed to toast "Success to the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway,"  which was drunk with " a hearty three times three."

After this opening "beano,"  the return trip to Whitehaven was accomplished in one and -a-half hours, the speed being 34 m.p.h. (excluding stops.)

With the completion of the line to Broughton the timetable was revised.  Between the two ends of system there were three trains each way on weekdays.  One was still for 1st and 2nd class passengers only and gave connections to and from the South as before.  The times were however altered;  the morning train from Whitehaven now leaving an hour later at 10.30 a.m. and the corresponding train from the South leaving Broughton at 12.15 p.m. instead of 4.45 p.m.  2 1/2 hours were required by these two trains for their journey.  The other two trains in each direction carried all classes of passengers and required times varying between 3 and 3 1/2 hours to complete their journey.  The additional trip on weekdays to and from Sellafield was now extended to Drigg.  There were two up and down trains over the line on Sundays.  Each train still called at all stations.  By the time it is believed that a goods train ran over the system in each direction daily.  Time tables for 1850 are reproduced below.

Having now achieved its main objectives; a junction with the Furness Railway and the hopes of a through connection to the Lancaster & Carlisle line at an early date, the W. & F. J. settled down to try and earn a respectable dividend for its shareholders.  But for the first 10 years of its existence the company had a hard struggle to keep on an even financial keel.  The reason for this was not far to seek.  Although the mineral traffic to Whitehaven harbour was considerable, the length of its haulage by the W. & F. J. was very short: only from Corkickle (where it was received from the Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont Railway) to the harbour, via the Whitehaven Market Place track.  Apart from this there was only the somewhat small amount of agricultural traffic which could be derived from the sparsely populated area to the south.  (This was in the days before the establishment of the blast furnaces at Millom.)

Boring operations for the tunnel from Corkickle to Bransty Station, Whitehaven, commenced in 1850 .  Single track, and 1,333 yards long, it was opened two years later.  Throughout its length it passes under the Grounds surrounding the Whitehaven Castle (now the local hospital.)  There are four air-shafts and the tunnel was originally lined with local freestone.

With the opening of the tunnel, direct connection, without the need for a double reversal, was given via the Whitehaven Junction line to the North.  A certain increase in traffic followed and also much closer relations between the W.& F.J. and the W. J. R. resulted.  Thus in 1854 the two companies arranged for the joint use of all rolling stock.  A year later Preston Street (Newtown) became the joint goods station of both concerns and Bransty the joint passenger terminus.  In 1860 The Lowther Hotel became the General Office of both companies.

Southwards from Whitehaven things were not so satisfactory.  It was still necessary to take the steamer from Piel to Poulton-le-Fylde to reach the Lancaster & Carlisle Railway and Preston.  So for the first half-dozen years as a completed railway, the W. & F. J. returned no dividends to its shareholders who preferred to forfeit rather than pay the calls that were made upon them.  The first gleam of hope came in 1858, when a dividend of 1 1/2 was declared.  From then onwards, the company prospered steadily.  The Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont Railway was now completed and brought a heavy flow of iron ore traffic, while the opening of the Ulverston & Lancaster Railway completed the link to the South.

In 1858 through bookings from Whitehaven to London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester and Preston were instituted and on the 11-15 a.m. "express" to the South, a "through conductor"  accompanied the train as far as Lancaster.  This new  "express"  got to Broughton in 1 hour and 35 minutes, with 7 intermediate stops.  On the goods side, a through mineral train to South Staffs. was instituted.

The volume of traffic being carried when the line became a dividend paying concern, can be judged from the Financial Returns for one week during February, 1861:

1st class passengers           107

2nd class                            361      

3rd class                            348

Parliamentary                   647


Total                                1,443


Passenger Revenue       £ 133

Goods Revenue             £ 477  


Week's Total                 £ 610

By 1864 the financial position of the Company was so strong that the question of the Duddon crossing was again revived.  As the first parliamentary powers had lapsed, a new bill was introduced.  At the same time, the Furness company entered the field with a similar scheme.  The latter no doubt had their eye on the traffic from the Hodbarrow iron mines and the newly-established ironworks at Millom.  Not unnaturally the W. & F. J. directorate resented this move by the Furness.  In their report to the shareholders in 1864, which dealt with the question of the Duddon crossing, the following paragraph appeared:

" We regret to find that the Furness Company, with whom we have hitherto been in amicable relationship, have also deposited a bill for the same purpose, thus proposing to invade the territory which legitimately belongs to this company."

The result of the Furness counter-scheme was a lengthy legal battle during which the W. & F. J. adopted the attitude of : injured innocents,"  pointing out that the Furness were seeking to gain the Millom iron traffic for the benefit of Barrow harbour at the expense of both Millom and Whitehaven. Eventually the Whitehaven company won the fight, but as events turned out it was a wasted effort; for in 1866 the Furness offered to take over the W. & F. J. on an 8% basis.  This offer was accepted by the shareholders.  The Furness also took over the obligation to carry out the Duddon crossing.  Thus the little Whitehaven company, after 15 years' existence during which time it passed from poverty to prosperity, became the "northern artery" of the Furness system.

Before dealing with the locomotives of the W. & F.J., a few details of the line itself and the methods of working will be of interest.

As already stated, the original passenger and goods station at Whitehaven was situated at Preston Street.  The latter was close to that part of the borough known as "Newtown."  Hence the terminus was usually known as the "Newtown station."There were no engineering feats of note between Whitehaven and Broughton, apart from the viaducts over the rivers Calder, Mite and Esk; and the "spile"  bride over the Duddon near Foxfield which has already been mentioned.  The latter had 50 spans and was 592 yards long.  During the making of the line between Ravenglass and Eskmeals the course cut across the corner of an ancient Roman fort and quite a number of relics, including fragments of Roman Samian ware pottery were unearthed.  The maximum gradient was only a short length (12 chains) of 1 in 307 between Drigg and Ravenglass.  As already stated, the line was single throughout, with passing loops at all stations except Braystone.

Little is know of the signaling arrangements, but they were no doubt of a primitive character, especially as the line carried only light traffic in the early years of its existence.  No serious accidents occurred, but there were several minor ones which might have had more serious consequences than they did.

The crash which involved the death of the fireman of the 2-2-2 well tank "Oberon" is narrated in Chapter IX.  This happened between Broughton and Foxfield.

The tunnel between Corkickle and Bransty was the scene of a collision in August, 1866.  All trains working through the tunnel were worked by a special Pilot engine, known right down to 1923 as "the tunnel engine."  As an added precaution a special "pilotman"  was employed at Corkickle whose duty was to give the "right-away" to all trains entering the tunnel.

On the occasion of the accident a mineral train had left Corkickle en rout for Maryport and when half-way through the tunnel the train parted.  The driver of the engine was apparently unaware that anything had happened and went on, leaving several wagons and the guard's van behind.  The normal time interval having elapsed, Pilotman R. JOHNSTON gave the morning train from Foxfield to Bransty permission to proceed from Corkickle.  Half-way to Bransty the passenger train collided with the guard's van and wagons which still stood in mid-tunnel.  The driver of the train engine, TOM SHIPPEN, was badly scalded and sustained other injuries.  He did not work again.  His fireman, who was probably riding on the front buffer beam to drop sand on the greasy tunnel rails, was killed outright.  Several passengers were injured, but none fatally.  The force of the impact on the stationary wagons was probably all the greater as trains did not slow up on approaching Bransty as they did in modern times.  The practice then was to run right through beyond the site of the modern Furness platform and then reverse back into what is now Bransty carriage shed:  this was the original Whitehaven Junction Railway terminus.  The 2-2-2 well tank "Oberon"  was again the engine involved in this accident.

Prior to this collision, several goods trains coupled together were often worked through the tunnel.  This dangerous practice was now stopped.

In the same year (1866) the 0-6-0 Goods engine "Lonsdale" came off the rails at Ravenglass.  She was shunting coal wagons into the depot sidings, the points for which were "propped open."  Having completed shunting operations, "Lonsdale" picked up her train and set off for Whitehaven.  Unfortunately the points for the depot siding were still "propped open" and the engine, with her train, ran back into the siding and over the end of it before she stopped.  A wagon containing 20 sheep which was attached next to :Lonsdale" went "over the top" as well.  The driver, fireman and guard, all three of whom were on the foot-plate, were badly scalded.  The sheep all escaped.  A temporary track was laid to get "Lonsdale" back on the line, little the worse for her mishap.

Before the closing of Preston Street station to passenger traffic, a very happy-go-lucky method of handling incoming traffic was employed.  All trains were stopped about 500 yards short of the platform.  The engine was then uncoupled and ran forward into a short spur siding.  The guard of the train then released his brake, which he had screwed down tightly after the engine first stopped, and the coaches then "coasted" down the slight incline towards the platform. The engine then reversed out of the siding and came forward again to propel the train into the station.  An accident, probably due to the failure of the guard's brake, caused this risky practice to be abandoned.

Although no details of telegraphic communication over the line as a whole are available, it is definitely established that "a telegraphic wire" was laid through Whitehaven Tunnel when it was first opened in 1852.  In his speech to the shareholders of the W. & F. J. in 1853, at the annual meeting, Lord Lonsdale spoke of various items of extraordinary expense which had been met with during the past year and added:

"The Telegraphic Wire through the tunnel has cost £100 for repairs during the year.  It ha again failed and I am of the opinion that it should be allowed to remain out of action as it is an expensive item which can very well be done without."  Little is know of the coaching and goods stock.  Probably they were much the same as any other to be found on similar railways of the same period.

The engine sheds and repair shops were also at Preston Street and were enlarged to accommodate the Whitehaven Junction locomotives after the 1855 agreement.  There was also a small shed at Broughton-in-Furness which housed one passenger and one goods engine.

From the time of the opening of the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway a very heavy traffic in iron ore and pig iron was handled by the W. F. J. from Corkickle sidings down to Whitehaven harbour (there was no dock until 1876.)  In the early '60's it was common for three to four hundred "tip" wagons of iron ore to be discharged into shipping at the harbour "jetties," in 24 hours.  All this traffic went via the Market Place track, and if any wagons required to be worked over this line after dark, horses were employed for haulage instead of locomotives.  The "tip" wagons used for this traffic had small wooden buffers and in order to deal with them all the larger W. F. J. locomotives had an additional small set of buffers fitted inside and slightly below the standard pair.

The first Locomotive Superintendent of the railway was MR. WILLIAM MEIKLE, who came from Surrey.  With him came MESSRS. WILLIAM CURTIS, JOHN HOPE, EDWARD HOPE, JOHN CROOK and ROBERT EDWARDS.  These five men were the first engine drivers on the line.  In 1864 MR. ROSE succeeded MR. MEIKLE as Locomotive Superintendent.  He retired in 1866.  His son, MR. EDWIN ROSE, was then appointed Locomotive Superintendent at Whitehaven shed by the Furness.  Here he remained until 1880, when he was given a similar post at Moor Row which he held until his retirement.  MR. ROSE died in 1924 in his 83rd year.



Historical data regarding the locomotives of the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway is somewhat scanty.  A list of the 19 engines owned by the company in 1866 is given below:

#          NAME            TYPE               BUILDER

1          Excelsior          -0-4-2               R.  W. Hawthorn

2          Hecla                  do                        do

3          Mars                   do                        do

4          Oberon            -2-2-2 tank        E. B. Wilson

5          Titania                 do                        do

6          Phoenix                do                  R. W. Hawthorn

7          Petrel                ? tank               E. B. Wilson ?

8          Tubal-Cain        -0-6-0               Stephenson

9          King Lear             do                       do

10        Queen Mab      -2-2-2 tank       R. W. Hawthorn

11        Kelpie                ? tank              E. B. Wilson

12        Big Ben              ? tank              Fletcher, Jennings

13        Sirius                   -0-4-2              R. W. Hawthorn


14        Vulcan                 -0-6-0              Stephenson


15        Banshee              -0-4-0 tank      Fletcher, Jennings

16        Bob Ridley               do               Neilson

17        Gurth                   -0-6-0               R. W. Hawthorn ?


18        Cedric                       do                       do

19        Lonsdale                   do                        do

Of the above list, the four -0-4-2 engines were supplied in either 1856 or 1857 by MESSRS. HAWTHORN'S of Newcastle-on Tyne  All had coupled wheels 5 feet 6 inches diameter, and trailing wheels 3 feet 6 inches.

  All had four-wheel tenders.  "Excelsior" and "Mars" were sister engines and had 16x22 in. cylinders.  "Hecla" and "Sirius" bore consecutive works numbers (997 and 998) and had 14 x 22 in. cylinders.

The four little -2-2-2 locomotives were all well tanks.  E.B. Wilson's of Leeds, supplied "Oberon" and "Titania" in 1860.  Their dimensions were as follows:

Cylinders 12x18 ins.; driving wheels, 5 feet 3 ins. dia.; working pressure, 120 lbs.  Their heating surface was 739 square feet and the well tanks held 500 gallons of water.  Coal space carried 25 cwts. and the :all-up: weight of these " dwarfs" was 27 tons.

"Queen Mab" and "Phoenix" were probably sister engines and were purchased from Hawthorn's about 1861.  They had driving wheels 5 feet 6 ins. dia., and cylinders 14x22 ins.

Little is known about "Kelpie" and "Petrel."  their wheel notation is uncertain.  Both were probably supplied by E.B. Wilson's.  Details about No. 12 ("Big Ben") are equally scanty.  She is believed to have been a tank engine, but of what type or what number of wheels she had, nothing is definitely known.  She was built by MESSRS. FLETCHER, JENNINGS & CO., of Lowca Foundry, near Whitehaven.

Three of the -0-6-0 which MESSRS. HAWTHORN'S supplied ("Gurth, " "Cedric"  and "Lonsdale") had cylinders either 14 or 16x24 ins.  Working pressure was 120 lbs.  Coupled wheels were 4 feet 6 ins.  dia., and heating surface 918 square feet.  Their four-wheeled tenders carried 1,600 gallons of water.  they were all supplied about 1864, and "Lonsdale" at least is know to have originally had outside bearings.

The remaining -0-6-0's ("King Lear," "Tubal-Cain" and "Vulcan") which came from Stephenson's, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, are believed to have been very similar to the Hawthorn products.  Their building dates are not known.

Finally there were the two little -0-4-0 tanks, "Banshee" and "Bob Ridley."  They were almost exclusively employed on mineral traffic between Corkickle sidings and Whitehaven harbour.  Both had outside cylinders 10x16 ins. and 4 feet diameter wheels.  :Bob Ridley,: built by Neilson, had side tanks and "gab" reversing gear.  She was built in 1861.  "Banshee," which was a saddle tank, came from Lowca Foundry a year later.  Both these "midgets" were really engines of the colliery type.

Owing to the fact that certain engines of the W. & F. J. worked over the Whitehaven Junction Railway from Whitehaven to Maryport and Cockermouth, which was absorbed by the London & North-Western Railway; the motive power of the W. & F. J. was divided up between the L. & N. W. and the Furness when the latter absorbed the Whitehaven and Furness Junction Company. The result of this was that the Furness got ten engines and the L. N. W. nine.  Those which went to Crewe were Nos. 2 and 7 to 14 inclusive; they were broken up almost immediately.  It was hardly likely that a large company like the North-Western would have any use for the somewhat motley collection of non-standard engines which they received.

A number of the ten engines taken over by the Furness had quite lengthy and varied careers still before them.

The two -0-4-2 tender engines, "Excelsior" and "Mars" were given the number 44 and 45 in the Furness list and ran until 1882.  In that year they were sold, but to whom is not known.

The three -2-2-2 well tanks didn't stay long with the Furness.  "Oberon" and "Titania" were sold in 1870, again to an unknown purchaser.  No. 6, "Phoenix" was also sold, almost as soon as she was acquired by the Furness, to the Isle of Wight Railway where she was re-named "Newport" and ran for a number of years.

The fate of -0-6-0 No. 17, "Gurth," is uncertain and she may have been scrapped immediately; but "Cedric" probably ran for some time and No. 19, "Lonsdale," had the distinction of surviving, although in a very much re-built form, right down to 1923.  She had even the doubtful honour of being allocated a London, Midland & Scottish number!  Re-numbered 42 by the Furness, :Lonsdale: was eventually re-built with inside bearings and was re-boilered more than once.  It was fitting that she was generally stationed at the Northern end of the Furness system, either at Whitehaven or Moor Row shed.  She was later re-numbered 66.

Finally, there was the fate of the two little -0-4-0 tanks. :Bob Ridley" and "Banshee."

Their stories are the most interesting of the lot.  Both remained on the F. R. list, as Nos. 49 and 50 respectively until 1882, when they were sold.  By this time there was probably little work for them to do.  In 1878 the Furness Railway obtained their joint interest in the Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont Railway.  This meant that the engines of the latter company could now work through the Whitehaven tunnel and the need for engines to handle the "exchange" traffic at Corkickle would cease.  The heavy iron ore and pig iron traffic for shipment from Whitehaven harbour now went via the tunnel, and the Market Place line was no longer needed.

The two "midgets" were purchased by MESSRS. RAMSEY Brothers, a Whitehaven engineering firm.  "Banshee" was re-sold to MESSRS. DALZIEL & Co. who sent her to shunt at their Iron Mills at Moor Row.  Here she remained down to 1916 when she was scrapped after a life of 54 years.

"Bob Ridley"  was retained by MESSRS. RAMSEY Brothers until 1898.  During that period she was employed as the Whitehaven Dock shunting engine:  MESSRS. RAMSEY having the contract for this job during that period.  In 1898 the little veteran was sold once more.  This time the purchaser was the Ellenborough Collier, near Maryport, and the "Bob Ridley" went, with "gab: gear still intact, but with a new set of 3 foot 6 inch wheels, to do a number of useful years' work before being broken up.

The question might be asked why the majority of the Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont engines survived so much longer with the Furness than the ones described in this chapter.  For a time the W. F. J. engines could be used between Whitehaven and Millom where the gradients were easy and the loads fairly light.  Later, however, the loads were stepped up and here the W. C. & E. locomotives, nearly all powerful tank engines with 17 inch cylinders, came into their own and were a valuable acquisition of the Furness locomotive stud.

The Whitehaven  Furness Junction locomotives were painted dark green, with little or no "lining out."  As already stated all had double sets of buffers for dealing with the "Chauldron type: iron ore wagons.  Judging from the photo of "Excelsior" on page 23 they had a good deal of polished brass work about them.  Most of the locomotives had outside bearings and the -0-4-2's had "slab" cranks.  The -0-6-0's "Lonsdale," "Cedric" and possibly "Gurth" are believed to have been designed by MR. MEIKLE, the first Locomotive Superintendent.  All engines carried their names and numbers cast on a brass plate, with the number immediately above the name.





Having dealt in the preceding chapters with the three companies taken over by the Furness between 1862 and 1866, we return to consider the development of the parent company during the next 20 years.

The period 1860-1865 was one of notable expansion.  Not only were the three other railways just described taken over, but plans were made for taking over the rapidly developing Barrow harbour from its commissioners and vesting it in the Furness Railway.  A big dock scheme for Barrow was also prepared, together with a new joint line with the "Little North-Western" from Carnforth to Wennington Junction on the Midland.  The idea behind all this was to obtain a through route to Yorkshire and the Midlands,  thus bringing more sea-borne traffic to Barrow.  Both plans went well.  Parliament approved the dock scheme and the joint line to Wennington in 1863 and construction on both started immediately.  In order to tap an adequate supply of stone for the construction of the dock walls and quays at Barrow, the Hawcoat Quarry branch, 52 chains long, was opened in the same year.

During the next five years (1865-1870) good progress was made.  MESSRS. BARASSEY & FIELDS, the contractors for the Devonshire dock, pressed on with their job and water was admitted on August 1st, 1867.  In the same year the Joint line with the Midland (9 miles and 50 chains long)  was opened to traffic.  As soon as MESSRS. BARASSEY & FIELDS had completed the work on the Devonshire dock, they commenced operations for a second one, to be named after the Duke of Buccleuch.  With the opening of the Wennington Carnforth line, the Midland Company transferred their steamer services to Belfast and the Isle of Man from Morecambe to Barrow (or to Piel Pier, to be more exact.)  The steamers used for this service had been run by the Morecambe Shipping Company, which was owned by the Midland.  On moving to Piel, the Service became jointly owned by the Midland and Furness Railways and Messrs. Little & Co., of Barrow.  In order to deal with this new sea traffic as expeditiously as possible Piel pier was extended and re-built so that the "boat trains" could run alongside the steamers.

September 19th, 1867, was notable occasion in the annals of the Furness Railway.  On this day the Devonshire dock was officially opened by MR. W. E. GLADSTONE. 2,500 feet in length, the new dock had a water space of 30 acres.

In Barrow (now boasting a population of over 20,000, compared with just over 2,000 in 1847)  the event was celebrated by a General Holiday.  All streets and shops ere decorated and the programme commenced with a gather in the Market Square.  Here an address was presented to the Duke of Devonshire and a gold medal to the Mayor of Barrow (MR. JAMES RAMSDEN.)

Following the ceremony, a Drinking Fountain, the gift of the Duke of Buccleuch, was inaugurated.  From the Market Place a procession, which included no less than three brass bands, paraded through the town and eventually drew up on the drawbridge which connected the Devonshire and Buccleuch docks.

After the official opening by MR. GLADSTONE, a lengthy inspection of the Harbour and surrounding work was carried out, after which the official party adjourned to the large goods shed near the station which had been transformed into a banqueting hall.  Here some 1,350 guests sat down.    The Furness Railway had decided to carry out the dock opening ceremony in "a big way."  Some 1,500 invitations had been sent out and free travel vouchers from any part of the system were issued.  In addition, the mighty London & North-Western had provided special carriages for those visitors to Barrow who travelled from stations on their railway.  It was estimated that nearly 5,000 persons came into Barrow by train for the opening and the ceremonies where witnessed by some 10,000 people.

At night there were large-scale illuminations, which included the sending up of a balloon which had a magnesium flare attached to it.  This gave off multi-coloured lights for a considerable period.  A gigantic bon-fire had also been prepared and was lit at 8 p.m. No less than 200 cartloads of material were used for it and the blaze was visible for many miles around.  In the words of a contemporary newspaper report:  "Not a few benighted strangers made their beds in the warmth of its vicinity."

The Buccleuch dock, which appears to have been opened at the same time as the Devonshire, was slightly larger than the latter.  Length was 3,000 feet and the water space 33 acres.  A timber pond of 35 1/2 acres was also constructed.  The whole scheme cost £ 200,000.  the engineers, were MESSRS. McLEAN &  STILEMAN of London.

While all these developments at Barrow had been going on, a start had been made on the branch from Ulverston to Newby Bridge.  This left the main line at Plumpton Junction (about 1 1/2 miles beyond Ulverston.)  Work on the construction commenced in 1867.  MESSRS. BANTON & WOODSIDE were the contractors.  The intermediate stations were Greenodd and Haverthwaite.

Meanwhile the question of bridging the Duddon Estuary cropped up once again.  It will be recalled that the Furness took over the obligation to carry out the scheme, when they absorbed the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway in 1866.  In 1867 the tender of MESSRS. D. BENNET & CO. was accepted for the work and the latter firm began to assemble material to carry out the job on the southern side of the estuary-near Askam Point.  But in the following year (1868) the Furness got "cold feet."  The size and cost of the scheme worried them.  The whole matter was gone into once again and it was decided that the "cons" outweighed the "pros."  So this time the Duddon crossing was abandoned for good.  The fact still remained that the Company were failing to carry out their obligation, and some kind of :face-saving" had to be devised.  The result was the fixing of a railway fare between Askam and Millom based on the distance across the estuary between the two places.  This fare (4d. single) persisted throughout the existence of the Furness Railway.

Another mineral branch was opened in 1868.  This was from Crooklands to Stainton and tapped a big limestone deposit which was to be worked to supply the Hindpool blast furnaces.  Over the branch, 1 mile and 56 chains long, some 65,000 tons of limestone were moved in the first year.  By 1919, 115,000 tons of limestone were obtained annually from Stainton Crown Quarry.

It was also decided in 1868 to extend the Newby Bridge branch to the foot of Lake Windermere, at Lakeside.  Up to this time the chief importance of the branch had been the traffic to and from the charcoal blast furnace at Backbarrow.  By extending to Lakeside the Company anticipated obtaining a good slice of the Windermere tourist traffic.  The final length of the branch was 7 miles 73 chains.

During the period under review, there were certain directorial and staff changes.  In 1865 MR. JAMES RAMSDEN, after 20 years' service as General Manager, became Managing Director.  In 1866 the Duke of Buccleuch joined the board of directors.  In the same year MR. HENRY COOK, who had been Secretary of the W. & F. J. R., was transferred from Whitehaven to Barrow and appointed Secretary to the Company.  MR. JAMES RAMSDEN had previously held the post.  MR. COOK was also appointed Traffic Manager.

During the next decade ( 1870-1880 ) various developments took place which finally cemented the Furness Railway into the size and form which it retained down to 1923.

The period opens with considerable extensions to the Barrow ironworks.  Here manufacture of steel rails and plates was commenced.  This brought a still greater volume of traffic to the Furness.  This is reflected in the 10% dividend which was paid in 1870 and the two succeeding years.  The boom in trade which followed the Franco-Prussian War brought still greater traffic.  Hodbarrow iron mines and the ironworks at Millom were also making a big contribution to the prosperity of the Company.  Nearly 1,000 additional wagons were put into traffic about this time.  The Hodbarrow iron mines produced haematite from big deposits which were discovered between the town of Millom and the seashore.  Preliminary shafts were first sunk in the 1850's.  The original Millom furnaces were completed in 1866 and another single one was erected in the same year on the opposite side of the Duddon estuary at Askham.  The latter went out to blast in 1919 and has since been dismantled.  The works at Millom are still "going strong" to-day.

Only one more passenger branch remained to be constructed.  This was from Arnside to Hindcaster Junction, on the L.N.W.R. Main Line from Preston to Carlisle.  Joining the latter just south of Oxenholme, the Furness obtained access to Kendal, and were granted running powers to the latter from Hindcaster Junction.  Most of the branch trains started from Grange-over-Sands.  The line, 5 miles and 25 chains long, was opened for traffic on June 26th, 1876.  Sandside and Heversham were the intermediate stations.

Another important event occurred in 1873.  This was the establishment of the Barrow Shipbuilding Company, which fifteen years later was to become the Naval Construction and Armaments Co. Ltd., and finally the world famous firm of Vickers Ltd.  With such a concern as this finally established at Barrow, the Furness Railway were bound to continue their development and expansion of Barrow docks and the harbour facilities generally.

Meanwhile the Furness Railway Act of 1872 had given the company powers to construct two further docks at Barrow:  the Ramsden and the Cavendish.

In 1873, two short mineral lines had been opened.  These were from Salthouse Junction to Stank (1 mile and 74 chains)  and from Barrow Old Station to Ormsgill (1 mile and 70 chains.)

Another ironworks was established at Ulverston in 1874.  This was the North Lonsdale Company and their blast furnaces were erected about a mile south of Plumpton junction.  A branch was laid into the works and extended on the Conishead Priory, near the village of Bardsea.  For a time a passenger train service was run, but for some years before the 1914-1918 was this had dwindled to an occasional excursion working and the line fell into disuse beyond North Lonsdale ironworks.

Throughout this expansion period, the main line had not been neglected.  By 1875 the track had been doubled through to Sellafield and two-thirds of the system re-laid with steel rails in place of the iron ones originally provided.  Actually the first steel rails were laid as early as 1863.  This was on the Ulverston and Lancaster section on which the iron rails were almost completely worn out after a life of only five years.  Evidently the original ones must have been of pretty poor quality.  Expansion of Barrow docks continued.  The Buccleuch dock was deepened in 1876 and work on a further one, the Ramsden dock, almost completed.  The latter was opened in 1879.

The close of the decade brought the conflict over the Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont Railway.  This concern, whose history is outlined in the next chapter, had built an extension in 1869 from Egremont to join the Furness line at Sellafield in order to obtain an outlet to the south for the Cleator district iron traffic.  The W. C. & E., although a small company, had prospered exceedingly and its shareholders had come to regard dividends of 10% as commonplace.  In 1878, the W. C. & E. found their considerable north-bound mineral traffic threatened by the newly formed Cleator and Workington Railway.  Furthermore the local traders were pressing for a reduction in the carrying rates.  Just about the same time the mighty London & North-Western Railway made overtures to the little Cleator Company.  The L. N. W. had their stake in West Cumberland in shape of the line from Whitehaven to Workington, Cockermouth and Maryport, as well as their working of the Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith Railway, and it is possible that Euston were getting "windy" about the damage which the Cleator & Workington line might do to their traffic, once the new line "got going."

For much the same reason, the W. C. & E. accepted Euston's offer and was leased to the L. N. W. R. in the same year (1878.)  In spite of this, the Furness Company did not allow the matter to rest.  They protested vigourously to the L. &. N. W. and also threatened to build their own line into the Cleator District by way of Seascale, and Gosforth to Egremont.  This spirited action had its effect on Euston and the whole affair was amicably settled in 1879.  The W. C. Y. E. R. became the joint property of the Furness and L. &. N. W. companies.  The shareholders of the little West Cumberland line didn't object, as they were guaranteed 10% perpetuity.

When the Cleator and Workington Railway was opened in 1879, the Furness Railway entered into an agreement with the new company to supply the bulk of the locomotive power and also supply all passenger rolling stock.  The history of this mall company, which survived as an independent concern down to 1923, is related in chapter XIV.  Being so closely connected with the Furness Railway throughout its existence, it seems fitting to include a chapter about it in this book.

Two other items deserve mention during the period under review.  In 1859 a steamer service was commenced on Coniston Lake.  The vessel employed was described as a "steam gondola" and was named "Lady of the Lake."  She did faithful service until 1908, when a larger version was put in service.  The steamer services on Windermere did not commence until 1871.

In 1862 the company opened the one hotel which they owned and later managed, at Furness Abbey.  Some details about this establishment will be found in Chapter X.

In 1879 the total mileage of the company (not including sidings) was 170 1/2 miles, and the authorised capital nearly £ 7,000,000.      






Like the Furness Railway further south, the Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont Company owed its existence to iron ore.  In the first part of the 19th Century big deposits of haematite were discovered in the Cleator Moor and Egremont districts of West Cumberland, and by the 1840's they were being rapidly exploited.  Till the inception of the W. C. & E. the ore was carted to Whitehaven for shipment.

The Company was formed by the usual "committee of local gentlemen"  and once again Lord Lonsdale was a prime mover in the venture and naturally one of the directors.  Powers to construct a line from a junction with a branch from Moor Row to Cleator Moor and Frizington, were obtained in 1854.  The line was opened for goods traffic on January 11, 1855.

The Chairman of the Company was A. B. SEWARD (later a High Sheriff of Cumberland.)  MR. JOHN LINTON was Secretary; MR. A ROBSON, Locomotive Superintendent; and MR. ROBERT GIBSON, Auditor.  When opened, the line was single throughout.

At the meeting in August, 1855, it was revealed that in the first six months (January to June ) 50,000 tons of iron ore and 11,000 tons of coal and coke, etc., had been carried.  A dividend of 7% had been earned, but in view of excellent prospects for further extensions and developments of the line, it was decided to limit payment to 4%.  Meanwhile it was agreed to make plans for doubling the line to Moor Row as soon as possible and for this an additional sum of £ 20,000 would be required.  This amount was raised with ease the following year.

The engineer, MR.  DEES, also reported at this meeting that the railway would soon be in a fit state to take passenger trains, but he urged that proper passenger coaches should be obtained before any service was begun.  The Government Inspector had surveyed the line and approved everything, except that some "distant signals" had still to be erected.  All station buildings were completed, but additional siding accommodation was urgently needed at Corkickle for traffic exchange purposes with the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Company.  It was also agreed at this meeting to order an additional 50 iron ore wagons.

By 1857 an agreement was arrived at with the W. & F. J. for exchanging traffic at Corkickle.  Earnings had now risen to 8 3/4 %  and a 6 % dividend was paid.  Receipts had been £ 4, 800 in 1856 and now topped £7,000.  the net increase in earnings was £ 800.  by the end of 1857 the number of passengers being carried was averaging 1,500 a week.

The first passenger train service, which was initiated in the summer of 1857, provided a service of three runs in each direction between Egremont and Frizington, and Whitehaven.  At first the W. C. & E. trains ran through to Bransty station, by paying a toll of 1 / - per train to the W. F. J. R.  Later a dispute arose over this payment, and W. C. & E. passengers were forced to de-train at Corkickle.

At the Annual Meeting in 1858 the Locomotive Superintendent, MR. A. ROBSON, stated that all engines were to be converted from coke to coal burning:  this was completed in 1859.

During the next two years the little line prospered exceedingly.  In August, 1860, it was announced that plans were being prepared to extend the Frizington branch to Lamplugh (a further 4 miles)  in order to tap additional iron ore mines which were working and from which the ore was being carted to Frizington Station for loading.  Powers for this extension and the doubling to Moor Row from Mirehouse Junction, were to be sought immediately from Parliament.  The cost of the Lamplugh Extension was estimated to cost £ 50,000 and the doubling to Moor Row would require £20,000.  Receipts for 1859-1860 were up to £ 10,800 (£2,000 up on the previous 12 months)  and a 10% dividend was declared.

MR. ROBSON included in his report to the directors the information that "a new 3rd class coach"  was being built at Moor Row, and enlargements and improvements to the repair shops there were authorised.

The Bill for the Lamplugh Extension was approved by Parliament on June 7th, 1861.  About this time the travelling public on the W. C. & E. got pretty fed up over the dispute between the latter and the W. & F. J. over the payment for use of the Tunnel by W. C. & E. trains.  As already stated, the W. & F. J. charged 1 / - per train, but very soon the W. C & E. objected.  The W. & F. J. tried to compromise by offering to accept 6d., but the offer was refused and the W. C. & E. simply stopped all their passenger trains at Corkickle.  As there was rarely a connecting W. & F. J. train available through to Bransty, the public had to walk.  Much correspondence began to appear in the local press.  One gentleman thought that passengers might change into W. & F. J. trains at Mirehouse Junction (where a platform would require to be erected; ) but wondered whether this would be safe, since it was close to the foot of the dangerous incline down from Moor Row (1 in 52.)

Another correspondent wrote saying that the W. C. & E. only paid 2d. per full, and 1d. per empty train to the W. & F. J. for goods loads into Corkickle Exchange sidings.  Since the W. C. & E. ran 8,181 goods trains into Corkickle sidings during 1861, representing a tonnage of over 1,000,000, and paid the W. & F. J. £ 59 for so doing, he thought the W. C. & E. might pay the miserable 6d. a train for passenger runs to Bransty.  However, after a good deal of "hedging"  an arrangement was come to between the two concerns in 1864 for the joint use of everything between Mirehouse and Bransty.

In 1863 most of the doubling of the line as far as Cleator Moor was either completed or well in hand.  This was a notable year for the company.  Net profit had now risen to over £ 9,000 and a dividend of 15% was declared.  Powers were now sought and obtained to extend the Lamplugh line on to Marron Junction, on the Workington-Cockermouth section of the L. & N. W. R.  An additional £ 75,000 capital was raised for this purpose.

By the spring of 1864  the Lamplugh extension was opened to passenger traffic and it was announced that the electric telegraph had been installed on the line, chiefly at the instigation of the iron ore companies.  It had been put in for the sum of £56.  Owing to ground subsidences caused by mining operations a deviation line at Cleator Moor was commenced.

At the Annual Meeting in 1864 the first mention was made of the idea to build an extension from Egremont to join the W. & F. J. line south of St. Bees and give a southern outlet to the ever-increasing iron ore traffic.  In connection with the Egremont Branch, it is interesting to record that from the time of the inception of passenger traffic, a coach was run daily from Gosforth to Egremont to connect with the morning train into Whitehaven.  This coach returned to Gosforth from Egremont after the arrival of the late afternoon train.  On Sundays (when there were two trains in each direction)  the coach ran to and from Calderbridge village only.  MR. A. ROBSON was succeeded by MR. JOHN SANDERSON as Locomotive Superintendent and Engineer this year.

Throughout the next couple of years the Company continued to prosper, although a certain amount of depression in the iron trade caused the dividend to fall below the double figure mark.  Meanwhile the extension to Marron Junction was proceeded with and opened for traffic in 1866.  Powers were also obtained in that year for the extension to Sellafield, where the W. & F. J. R. (now part of the Furness system )  was to be joined.  The line was to be a joint affair with the Furness.  Joint use of the Bransty tunnel was now working smoothly and a start was made on the Bigrigg Mineral branch (about a mile long)  to tap additional iron ore mines.

The contract for the extension of the line from Egremont to Sellafield was let to MR. THOMAS NELSON of Carlisle.

During the next 12 months, the London & North-Western Railway made some tentative overtures to the W. C. & E. with a view to absorbing the junior company.  For the time being the efforts from Euston met with a rebuff.  At the Annual Meeting in 1867 the chairman (Mr. A. B. SEWARD)  remarked that the mighty North-Western considered that its shareholders did well when they got 5 1/2% on their money.  They (the W. C. & E.)  preferred to stand on their own feet and earn 10%.  This remark was greeted with cheers.  At the Annual Meeting in February, 1868, there was a bit of a rumpus over certain large sums of money due to the Company which were still outstanding:  chiefly from the iron ore companies for carrying charges.  Certain shareholders wanted a committee appointed to curb expenditure and check up on efficiency generally.  However, after a lengthy argument, the motion was washed out; the critics silenced and an 8% dividend paid.

In 1869 the extension to Sellafield was opened for traffic.

By 1873 the general all-round improvement in trade brought the dividends back above the 10% mark and in that year 12% was paid.  It was also decided to increase the goods and mineral rates: 7% on iron ore traffic and 11% on coal and pig iron.  The Company now had a new chairman, MR. HENRY JEFFERSON, of Bigrigg.  But soon after these increased rates were brought into force, the various local traders, and more especially the iron masters and colliery owners, began to complain about them.  This was natural enough, and no doubt the W. C. & E. were not surprised, or even unduly worried, for the time being.  Presently, they got a rude shock.  A move was made by the aggrieved trades to promote a new railway from Cleator district to join the L.M.W.R. north of Workington.  This was to run via Moresby Parks, Distington and Workington and thence to Siddick Junction, on to Workington to Maryport line.  Another branch was to strike north and link up with Maryport & Carlisle Railway on their Derwent Branch from Bullgill Junction to Cockermouth.  The W. C. & E. now got really worried.  They saw their substantial north-bound traffic being cut to ribbons by this new competitor.  When the Bill promoting the Cleator & Workington Company went forward, they offered the most strenuous opposition to it.

In the meantime powers were sought to construct a mineral branch from Ullock (on the Rowrah-Marron Junction extension) to Distington, where blast furnaces were established.  Know as the Gilgarron branch and taking its name from an estate through which it passed, the line was approved by Parliament in 1875, as well as the additional capital issue of £ 75,000 for constructional costs.  Soon after it was decided to extend this branch down the valley from Distington to join the Whitehaven-Workington section of the L. & N.W. R. at Parton.  Powers to do so were obtained to June, 1876.  The purpose of constructing the Gilgarron branch was three-fold.  Firstly, it was to provide a line to feed Distington Ironworks with ore from the mines in the Lamplugh area and at the same time to serve a new colliery at Wythmoor (between Ullock and Distington)  which was being developed.  Secondly, by the extension down to Parton, pig iron could be carried to Whitehaven harbour for shipment.  finally, the W. C. & E. had in mind the threat to their traffic from their coming competitor, the Cleator & Workington Railway.

By 1877 the latter company had become a reality and when the L. & N. W. R. renewed their overtures  regarding acquisition of the W. C. & E., the directors got really panic-stricken and decided to accept Euston's offer.  The following year the North-Western took over.  But the matter did not rest there.  The Furness Company took up the fight.  They bitterly resented the intrusion of the L. & N. W. south of Whitehaven and threatened, as stated in the previous chapter to build their own line into the Cleator district by making a railway from Seascale to Egremont, via Gosforth.  Now it was Euston's turn to get worried and the latter suggested to the Furness that the two companies might "get together" over a matter which after all was of equal importance to both.  The result was that in 1879 the W. C. & E. was acquired by the Furness and London & North-Western Companies.  This was done under the Whitehaven , Cleator & Egremont Vesting Act of 1878.  By this Act, the L. & N. W. R. provided the capital sum of £ 536,000 and the Furness became responsible to them for half the dividend thereon: the latter was fixed at 10% in perpetuity.

The last meeting of the Whitehaven, Cleator  & Egremont Railway Company was held in February 1878.  In his final speech the chairman ( MR. HENRY JEFFERSON) said that after all financial matters had been settled up and all accounts paid, there remained a credit of £ 2,417 17s 6d.  They proposed to use this money to pay a final dividend of 1 1/6%.  This would leave a sum of £ 323 still to be disposed of.  One of the shareholders suggested that this sum might be spend on a piece of plate to be presented to the chairman and vice-chairman (MR. MUSGRAVE,)  but after some discussion it was decided that the money should be divided equally among all the directors.  The chairman then thanked all concerned for their kind gesture and intimated that the money would no doubt be handed over to some charitable institution, possibly one of the local hospitals.

Thus one of the most prosperous of Britain's "little railways"  in the Victorian era passed out of existence.  Starting with an initial capital of £ 66,000, the figure had grown to £ 713,600 in 1877.

When taken over by the London & North-Western and Furness Companies, the W. C. & E. Comprised 22 miles and 46 chains of railway (reduced to single track.)  The stations between Whitehaven (Corkickle ) and Marron Junction were Moor Row, Cleator Moor, Frizington, Eskett, Winder, Rowrah, Wright Green, Ullock, Branthwaite and Bridgfoot.  Later the names of Eskett and Wright Green were changed to Yeathouse and Lamplugh respectively.  Between Moor Row and Sellafield the intermediate stations were Woodend, Egremont and Beckermet.  Between Corkickle and Rowrah and between Woodend and Egremont, the line was double track.  Gradients on the system were generally severe and are described in Chapter XIII.

Just before the absorption into the L. & N. W. R., £100 of W. C. & E. stock was valued at £ 170 after the big company took over this figure shot up to £ 245.

The Secretary to the Company, thoughout its existence, was MR. LINTON who, rather ironically, went to fill a similar post with the Cleator & Workington Company when the W. C. & E. went out of existence.



The Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont started operations with four locomotives.  When the line was absorbed by the Furness and London & North-Western Railways in 1879 this number had grown to 17.  All were tank engines; all but two were of the saddle variety and were 0-6-0's.  Only one (NO. 12) had outside cylinders and she was a 2-4-0 locomotive.
Of the first batch of four engines delivered, three ( Nos. 1,2 and 4) had the same dimensions:  wheels, 4 feet 6ins. dia.; cylinders, 16 x 24 in. and 125 lbs. pressure.  All had outside bearings.  No. 3, "Victoria," was a short side-tank and had wheels, 4 feet 6 ins. dia.; cylinders, 14 x 22 ins.; and inside bearings.  Steam pressure was 125 lbs.  In 1867 she disgraced herself by bursting her boiler at Moor Row, happily without fatal results to her crew.  After this unhappy event she received a new boiler pressed to 150 lbs.  No. 4, "Keekle" had a long career.  After the Furness got her in 1878, she was rebuilt with cab, Ramsbottom safety valves and sundry other "refinements."  She continued to run, mainly on the Cleator & Workington Railway, for which the Furness supplied nearly all the motive power, down to the 1914-18 War period.  One of her last duties prior to withdrawal was that of shunter at Preston Street Goods Yard, Whitehaven.
In her original condition, "Keekle" had a longitudinal mid-feather in the fire-box, and two fire-holes.  she was re-boilered in 1895.
The next batch of eight locomotives (Nos. 5 to 12) which were  put into traffic between 1860 and 1869 and had the cylinders increased to 17 x 24 ins., were all replicas of Nos. 1 and 2, except the last of the bunch, No. 12, "marron."  This 2-4-0 side tank, which had outside cylinders 14 x 22 ins., was the only passenger engine possessed by the company.  She was "the ugly duckling" on the line.  Her driving wheels were 5 feet 6 ins. in diameter.  It is understood that a few years after her arrival on the W. C. & E., "Marron" was sent to the Lowca Foundry of Messrs. Fletcher, Jennings & Co. for overhaul.  There her cylinders were altered to 15 x 20 ins. and her wheels reduced to 5 feet dia.
"Marron"  was not new when the company purchased her and it is thought that she came from a line in South Wales or from the North London Railway.  She had been built by Slaughter & Co. and carried the number "3" on the front of her chimney when she arrived.  She weighed 34 tons.
When "Marron" was taken over by the Furness in 1878, she lost her nameplate, in common with the rest of the W. C. & E. locomotives.  However, she received the nickname of "Old Jeff" and another unprintable designation.  In the words of one who knew her "she was a source of trouble to all concerned."  "Marron" became No. 108 in the F. R. list, 108A (Duplicate List) in 1904 and was scrapped in the same year.
No. 6, "Parkside,"  differed from her sisters in having the two bottom rows of boiler tubes projecting through the smoke-box, making it possible to see into the interior of the fire-box by looking over the front buffer-beam.  She was also fitted with an American type cab which had glass side windows- an unheard of luxury in Britain in those days.  It is possible that she may have been originally built for service across the Atlantic.
"Newton Manor" (No. 11) started her career badly.  She was particularly susceptible to derailment and spent much of her period of W. C. & E. ownership in the Moor Row shops.  In 1880, however, MR. E. ROSE, the Locomotive Superintendent at Moor Row under the Furness regime, took her in hand.  Among other things he altered her axle box cheeks.  After this "Newton Manor" ran for 18 months without a derailment.
This locomotive was also involved in two other "pranks,"  one of which might have had fatal results for her crew.  In the first instance, she broke her trailing axle near Sellafield, but being a double-framed engine, she kept on the road.  It was in 1880 that she really let herself go.
On this occasion, "Newton Manor" was shunting the sidings at Seaton, while doing duty on the Cleator and Workington Railway.  Driver TYSON, who had her as his engine over 30 years, was the regulator.  Shunting being completed, No. 11 reversed to pickup her train.  The fireman got down from the cab to couple up to the leading wagon and Driver TYSON also left the footplate to obtain the train staff from the signal box for the single line working down to Cloffocks Junction.  Just after the crew had left the engine, her boiler burst.  To quote TYSON'S own words; "There was a loud report like a cannon going off, and stones and ballast were flying about in steam and hot water."  Luckily no one was hurt, although TYSON and his mate got their hands scalded when trying to lift the fire-bars up to let the fire out and save the lead plug.  When her saddle tank was lifted off, it was found that the middle plate of "Newton Manor's boiler had given way, about six inches above the delivery clack.  Following a Board of Trade enquiry at Barrow,  "Newton Manor" was given a new boiler pressed to 150 lbs. and proved an excellent engine for many more years.  Among her best performances was the running of a goods train from Corkickle Sidings to Millom, 30 miles, in the booked time of 45 minutes.  This time included three slacks for hand exchange of the train staff between Corkickle and Sellafield.  Given a reasonable load, she kept time with ease.
Of the further additions to the locomotive stud during the period 1869-3, all came from Stephenson's.  "Springfield" and "Buttermere" had outside frames, but "Derwentwater" had the inside variety.  Cylinder dimensions and working pressure remained unaltered.
The last two engines purchased by the company were delivered in 1875.  both were supplied by MESSRS. ANDREW BARCLAY of Kilmarnock.  No. 16, "Ullswater," was 0-4-0 saddle tank and was sold to Crewe as a shunting engine by the Furness almost as soon as they acquired her.  Nothing more was heard of her until the 1914-18 War period.  Then "Ullswater" turned up in the yard of the Whitehaven Haematite Iron & Steel Company at Cleator Moor.  She had been hired from Crewe as a shunting engine.  She was scrapped in 1919.
No. 17, "Wastwater,"  was practically a replica of No. 14, "Derwentwater."  She became No. 112 on the Furness list until 1899, when she became No. 108.  Seven years later she went on to Duplicate List and was the last of the W. C. & E. engines to be withdrawn - in 1923.
All the W. C. & E. locomotives, except Nos. 3, 12, 14, 16 and 17, had outside frames.  They were painted green, with red and white lining out.  They had polished brass domes and the buffer beams and motion were painted vermilion.  When supplied, Nos. 1, 2, 4 and 5 were domeless.  They were all fitted with domes by MR. ROBSON as they went through the shops.  The practice of painting the motion vermilion was continued by the Furness after they took the engines over.  All weighed 44 tons in working order, except "Marron" (36 tons) and "Victoria" (34 tons.)
"Marron" had the distinction of being the only outside-cylindered engine ever owned by the Furness Railway.  The latter fitted all the W. C. & E. locomotives with steel boilers as they passed through the shops, as the lap-joints of the longitudinal seams of the original iron ones were a frequent source of trouble.
The whole of the W. C. & E. stock eventually went on to the Furness Duplicate List before being withdrawn.  Throughout they worked almost entirely on or near their "home ground."  A number did regular duty on the Cleator & Workington Railway towards the end of their days and were mostly shedded at Moor Row and Workington (Central.)
Compared with the high-pitched Furness whistle, the W. C. & E. engines had quite a deep toned variety fitted.  The pitch was not unlike that of an L. & Y. locomotive.  The exhaust note was rather deep and hollow.  All engines were kept in immaculate condition.  Like the locomotives of the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway, they were fitted with a narrow set of buffers inside and slightly below the standard  pair for dealing with the "chaldron"  type iron ore wagons used on the line.
The company had its own locomotive shops at Moor Row were most repairs could be carried out, and a little rolling stock also appears to have been constructed there.  The passenger coaches were painted in chocolate livery.
The Furness Railway 1879 - 1896
The year 1879 saw the last of the absorptions and amalgamations which affected the Furness Railway and the Company finally assumed the size and form which it was to maintain down to the 1923 grouping.  The '80' were not good from a mineral traffic point of view, as there was considerable depression in the iron and steel trade, nevertheless the company continued their development policy as far as Barrow was concerned.  This fact was to come in for a lot of criticism during the next ten years.
The beginning of the decade was not promising for the Furness.  During 1879, gross receipts were down by nearly £ 35,000 at £ 209,567 for the period.  Net receipts fell by well over £ 29,000 and this included a loss of £ 12,000 on the working arrangement with the Cleator & Workington Company.  Never the less, the expansion and development of Barrow was still dear to the heats of the Duke of Devonshire and his directors, and it was decided to raise another £ 250,000 capital for various schemes.  Among the latter were the building of cattle sheds and slaughter houses in connection with the cattle traffic and warehouses for the handling of the cargoes which was expected to result from an arrangement with the Anchor Line Steamship Company by which certain of their vessels should be routed from New York to Barrow.  A dividend of 3 1/2% was declared for 1879.
Powers had been obtained to construct a line from Park Junction (between Askam and Dalton)  to Barrow, and it was decided to proceed with this 1880.  The line was to cost £ 33,000 and a new station at Barrrow a further £ 15,000.  This branch, which gave Barrow a through connection to the North without reversal at Dalton Junction, was opened on June 1st, 1882.  The new line was 7 1/2 miles long and was used by all passenger trains from Whitehaven to Carnforth;  the original route from Park South to Dalton Junction being used only by through goods trains which were not carrying traffic for Barrow.
1880 was a better year.  Gross receipts were up to £ 290,000 and net receipts by £ 37,700 over 1879.  Trade had been a little better and the dividend shot up to 6 3/4 %.  The next two years were still better. 7 1/4% was paid in 1881 and 7% in 1882.  New capital was again raised in the latter year, this time to the tune of  £350,000 and mainly on account of Barrow docks.  The chief plan was the provision of a dry dock and further dredging operations in Walney Channel and the harbour approaches.  During 1882, the number of vessels using Barrow harbour was 297, with a total tonnage of 67,000.
Unfortunately the Company was in for another bad spell.  During the next five years the trade slump grew steadily.  The dividends began sliding down the slippery slope of depression.  In 1883 the payment was 4 3/4 % and by 1886 it had gone down to a mere 2%.  During this period certain shareholders began to get restive and expressed their feelings at the annual meeting in no uncertain terms.  In 1883 it was proposed to raise a further £200,000 capital, although the dividend had gone down by 3 1/4%.  Mineral receipts had fallen by £31,000, and two shareholders, MR. T. W. CHESTER and MR. S. SMITH, had a good deal to say about it.  MR. CHESTER'S complaint (which probably represented the feelings of many shareholders)  was that the continued expenditure on Barrow docks was unjustified.  He would rather have seen some improvement in the passenger coaching stock, particularly the third class variety.
MR. SMITH'S chief contention was that it was time the Company appointed a General Manager.  (MR. HENRY COOK, late of the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway, filled the post of Secretary and there was no post of General Manager in the company,)  For the time being the directors fought off this combined onslaught.  The chairman said they were only carrying out those extensions at Barrow that were justified, and it was only the unprecedented trade depression, over which they had no control, which was causing the slump in profits.  He also pointed out rather shrewdly that there had been no complaints about expenditure on Barrow when the dividends had been high.
The following year MESSRS. CHESTER and SMITH returned to the attack.  Trade was no better and there was a proposal to carry out further dredging operations in Walney Channel.  MR. CHESTER said Barrow docks had already cost the company £2,100,000 and were " a truth in the rumour that the Furness Railway was going to be taken over by the Midland.  The chairman's answer was "positively, no."  There was a hint of anxiety in a further reply from the chair that only the most essential expenditure would be authorised and everything done to reduce expenses.
During November, 1884, a violent storm, with high tides, destroyed three-quarters of the mile of the embankment on the Arnside-Hindcaster Junction branch, between Arnside and Sandside.  The metals were torn up bodily for a distance of 40 feet.
Meanwhile the two viaducts over the Leven and Kent Estuaries were badly in need of re-building.  Erected by MESSRS. W. & J. GALLOWAY, of Manchester, in 1860 (for the Ulverston & Lancaster Company,)  they had done good service for 25 years, but the increasing weight of the trains had rendered them unsafe.  Both had 30 spans and measured 520 yards.  That over the Leven was re-constructed by 1885 and a year later the Kent one was finished.  No more than 3% could be paid to the shareholders for 1884.
Since the opening of the new Central station at Barrow (which had four roads and ultimately covered 15 acres) the old terminal station had been converted into a goods depot.
The bottom of the slump was reached in 1885.  At the Annual Meeting in February, 1886, it was revealed that passenger traffic was down by no less than 60,000 fares, and of these 46,000 were third class.  Passenger receipts were £ 2,000 lower.  MR. CHESTER sailed into the attack once more.  He declared that if all the vast sums of money hadn't been spent on Barrow, their dividend would have been 19% instead of 2%.  He also extracted the information from the Chairman that negotiations had been entered into with the Midland Company with a view to possible absorption.  These negotiations had fallen through, the chairman added, because the Midland were not prepared to guarantee the Furness shareholders more than 5%.  He rather defiantly added that the Furness Directors were of the opinion that on their own they were quite capable of earning at least 6 1/2%, once the local trade position improved.  Fortunately, for all concerned, the iron and steel trade began to recover in 1886 and although there was no increase in the dividends, the mineral receipts rose by £ 4,000.
During this period no one could describe the Furness coaching stock as other than antiquated.  It was all 4-wheeled stock and pretty poor at that.  Before the opening of the line from Park South to Barrow, there were no through coaches to the latter town, other than the Midland boat train in connection with the steamer sailings to the Isle of Man and Belfast.  these originally ran to Piel Pier until Ramsden dock was opened.  It is believed that the first through carriages from the Midland line to Piel first appeared in the late  '70's. Until the advent of RM. PETTIGREW'S semi-corridor bogie stock in the late ' 90' s, the Midland provided the carriages for the boat trains.  They were all six-wheeled affairs.  In the summer months a through coach was put on from Leeds to Whitehaven by a train which left the Yorkshire city about 10-35 a.m.  All the main line trains were worked by the 2-4-0 tender engines of MESSRS. SHARP, STEWART'S standard design.
In 1881 the morning down mail left Carnforth at 4.40 a.m. and reached Barrow in 1 hr. and 5 min.  for the 28 1/2 miles.  The same time was taken by the down Isle of Man boat train, which left Leeds at 10.32 a.m. and stopped at Carnforth East Junction box at 12.30 to change engines.  The best timing in the opposite direction from Barrow was also 1 hr. and 5 min., but this was a slightly better effort, as from 5 to 7 minutes was required for the stop at either Furness Abbey or Dalton to attach and detach the portion to and from Millom and Whitehaven.
From Whitehaven, the 7.30 p.m. up mail reached Dalton Junction at 8.40 p.m.   After the portions to and from Barrow had been dealt with, it left again at 8.55, reaching Carnforth at 9.45 p.m.  After the opening of the line via Barrow in 1882, this performance was improved upon, for we find the same train taking only 7 minutes longer to reach Carnforth in 1887, in spite of an additional 7 1/2 miles having been added to the distance.
The up Midland boat train did quite a smart run of 45 minutes from Barrow to Carnforth which gave a speed of 40 3/4 m.p.h.  without stops and 38 m.p.h with stops included.
From 1887 to 1889, the fortunes of the company staged a modest come-back.  The combination of better trade conditions and a rather less liberal policy with regards to expenditure on Barrow were the chief causes.  Traffic was generally a little higher all round in 1887 and the only important item of extra expense was a sum of £10,000 to be spent on a petroleum store at Barrow.  The dividend was 2 1/2%.  Our old friend, MR. SMITH, again brought up the matter of expenses generally at the Annual Meeting, saying that they were much too high,  and 1 1/2% higher than any other company in the country.  He also criticised the board for not showing the Barrow dock receipts separately.  The chairman (now the Marquis of Hartington) successfully silenced the critics.
Receipts showed a welcome rise of £11,000 the following year and it was announced that the capital expenditure was now completed as per programme.  The shareholders got an additional 1 3/4%, making 2 3/4% for the year.
With a 5% return for the ordinary stockholders in 1889, the recovery of the company seemed to be really assured, but it was not to be.  The old bogey of bad trade set in again with a vengeance and not only were receipts down by £ 10,000 the following year, but the working expenses were up by the same amount.  A rise in the price of locomotive coal by 2/2 per ton was one of the chief factors.  The iron trade was had again and naturally this had an adverse affect on the passenger figures.  Only 3 3/4% was paid in 1890, but there was still worse to come.
The general depression had an effect on the train timings too, for several de-accelerations were made in 1891.  The 7.30 p.m. up mail from Whitehaven was slowed by 10 minutes compared with the timing in 1881 and 3 minutes worse than 1888.  The up Midland boat train (12.25 p.m. from Barrow Docks) needed 50 minutes to reach Carnforth, non-stop.  The best timing of the day was for the 3.43 p.m. from Carnforth which took 2 hours and 12 minutes to make Whitehaven.
The 7th Duke of Devonshire died in 1891.  He had relinquished the chairmanship of the Company some time previously to his son, the Marquis of Hartington, who now succeeded him and was to guide the fortunes of Furness Railway until his death in 1908.
On October 22, 1892, about 8.16 a.m. a remarkable accident occurred on the Furness Railway at Lindal.  The 0-6-0 tender engine NO. 115 ( a 16" Sharpie") was shunting some iron ore wagons into a siding in the yard when the ground suddenly caved in under the locomotive.  The engine crew (Driver POSTLETHWAIT and Fireman Robinson) jumped off the foot-plate and got away.  Slowly but surely the engine sank into the cavity and by 2.15 p.m. she had disappeared from view.  Only the tender was saved.  The area round Lindal was honeycombed with iron ore workings, and this was evidently responsible for the subsidence.  It is estimated that the locomotive lies some 200 feet below the ground to-day.  The cavity was filled up in due course and the lien became quite safe for traffic.  While this was going on, goods for the area were worked round the Penrith, Keswick and Workington.  For passengers, trains were worked to and from each side of the subsidence.  A new engine was eventually built to replace 115, whose salvaged tender she received.
1892 was a trying year, and there was much unrest at the Annual Meeting.  An amendment to keep the expenditure on the Docks at Barrow and on the railway itself separate was proposed.  It was also moved that a sum of £2,151,000 shown in the accounts should be split between the two.  More serious was the motion that the General Manager (Sir JAMES RAMSDEN) should retire.  Our old friends, MESSRS. CHESTER and SMITH, were after his blood, as they felt (and probably rightly) that he was the main spirit behind the perpetual pouring of money into Barrow docks.  However the Chairman decided to treat the whole matter as a vote of confidence, and was obtained.  The dividend, which had fallen to 3% in 1891, now touched a "new low" at 1 1/2%.
At this meeting it was revealed that the old problem of the Duddon Crossing had reared its ugly head again, and there was a fair body of opinion in favour of the scheme being gone on with.  In spite of this the directors announced that they had gone into the matter very carefully, and although engine and train mileage would be cut down, they anticipated a loss of £12,000 annually on completion of the job.  It was also alleged that the chances of increased traffic resulting from the carrying out of the crossing "would be problematical."
The requirements of the Board of Trade ran the Company into some heavy expenditure in 1893, when they were compelled to purchase 55 new third class coaches (6 wheelers)  fitted with the vacuum brake.  This cost £24,319.  Unfortunately there was a coal strike in the Lancashire and Yorkshire coal fields and only 31 out of the 75 iron furnaces in the area were in blast.  This meant more unemployment and fewer passengers to enjoy the improved facilities which the new coaches offered to the third class passengers who comprised a very big proportion of the traveling public on the line.  The competition of Spanish ore with the native variety was also becoming very keen.  For example, in 1870 the Furness carried 270,000 tons of iron ore, mined locally, which went to works beyond Carnforth.  In 1894 this tonnage had fallen to 27,000.  In the same period shipments from Barrow of native ore fell from 130,000 tons to 30,000.  Consumption at all the local smelting works was also very much reduced.
To a large extent 1895 was a turning point in the history of the Furness Railway.  From now on, although it was never to get back anything near to a large dividend, the company was to turn more and more to the development of passenger traffic, particularly of the tourist variety.  The obsession over the mineral side of things, and the Barrow docks (which were pretty well completed anyway)  was now to be of less importance.  It was the appointment of MR. ALFRED ASLETT as Secretary in 1895 which gave impetus to the change of outlook.  He came from the Cambrian Railway and two years later became the first General Manager of the company:  an appointment for which our old friends, MR. S. SMITH, had pressed so long.
The dividend paid in 1893 was 1 1/4% and in 1894 it was 2%.
During the first five years of its existence, four locomotives sufficed to handle the traffic on the Furness Railway.  During this period the line only extended from Kirby-in-Furness and Dalton-in-Furness to Piel Pier.  No regular passenger service was provided when the line was first opened.  Of the first four engines, two were built in 1844 and used for the construction of the line.  Numbered 1 and 2 they were both 0-4-0 tender engines of the famous "Bury" type and constructed by MESSRS. BURY, Curtis and Kennedy, of Liverpool.  Two more, numbered 3 and 4 were delivered in 1846.  They came by boat from Liverpool to Piel.
Unfortunately, no drawings exist of No 1 and 2, but it is known that they were almost identical with Nos. 3 and 4, except for having 13 in. cylinders and 80 lbs. pressure.  Neither engine had any claim to fame.  No. 1 had her fire-box badly burned at Carnforth in 1866, owing to the fire having been lit with an empty boiler.  she was then broken up.  No. 2 was sold to a colliery in Northumberland in 1871, and no more was heard of her.
Nos. 3 and 4 both survived down to 1900, having a life of 54 years.  In that year No. 4 was broken up; but it was decided to preserve her sister, always known affectionately as "Old Copper Nob, " on account of her dome fire-box with its polished copper casing.  "Copper Nob" was duly installed in a gigantic "glass case" at the south end of Barrow Central down platform.  Here she remained, except for a trip to the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley in 1924/25, until 1941 when her glass case was rudely shattered by the attentions of the Luftwaffe.  She was then removed to the safety of Crewe Works, where she has so far remained.
Some fairly extensive details of these famous "Bury" engines will be of interest. 
Both had inside cylinders 14x24 in. with slide valves between.  The steam ports were 1 1/4: wide and the exhaust 3x10 1/2 inches long.  Each cylinder had a separate casing with individual exhaust pipes converging into one.
The four-coupled wheels were 4 ft. 9 in. dia., the centres being of wrought iron, with cast-iron bosses.  The iron tyres were secured to the rims by inch bolts.  The main bearings were 5 1/4 ins. dia. and 7 ins. long, and the crank pins were 2 1/4 x 2 3/4 in.
The frames, which were of rectangular section, and of the bar type, had the upper and lower members united by pedestals.  Gun-metal axle-boxes were fitted.  The curved link type motion had the eccentric rods coupled direct, with crossed rods and links suspended from the bottom.  The sheaves were cast-iron, with gun-metal eccentric strips.  Double gib and cotters secured the brasses of the connecting rods, which were round, with forked ends.
With the exception of the fire-box, both engines had boiler plates of Low Moor iron.  The boiler barrels were made up with three rings, consisting of two plates 7/8" thick.  The back ring was flared back to join the domed fire-box casing.  No less than eight plates were used for this fire-box crown.
The copper fire-box, made up of four plates, nine-sixteenths of an inch thick,  was semi-circular in plan, with a curved crown.  The tube plate was 3/4 " thick.  The crown plate was supported by four solid roof-bars of wrought iron, secured by one inch rivets and connected to the outer shell by eight sling-stays which were 1 1/2 in. dia.  The sides of the fire-box were stayed throughout  with copper stays which were screwed into both plates and riveted over.  The front tube plate, which was 5/8" thick, was attached to the boiler barrel by two gusset stays.  The brass tubes were 2 1/2 " external diameter.
The dome contained the equilibrium regulator valve, with a 4" dia. main steam pipe to the cylinders.  Salter spring balance safety valves, with springs adjusted to 110 lbs. per square inch, were mounted on the dome.  The valves were 2 1/2  dia.  Both engines had tenders with a water capacity of 1,000 gallons.  The underframes of these tenders were constructed entirely of oak.  The tender wheels had a diameter of 3 ft. 1 1/2 in.  They were of cast-iron with wrought-iron tyres.  Each locomotive had an iron-plate smoke box; iron chimney with copper top; total heating surface of 854 sq. ft. ; a grate area of 9 sq. ft. and a weight of 19 tons in working order.  With tender included, the weight was 32 tons 8 cwt.
As already stated, both No. 3 and 4 had long lives, but as old age crept on them and train weights increased, they had to be relegated to lighter duties.  Their last days were spent on shunting duties at Barrow Docks.  Both were great favourites with MR. MASON, Locomotive Superintendent of the Furness Railway, for nearly 50 years down to 1896.
It is related that on one occasion a driver from Moor Row shed brought his engine into Barrow Shops for some heavy repairs.  On arrival at Barrrow, all engines had to be inspected in person by MR. MASON, and if a speck of dirt was found on any part (motion included,) there was trouble for the engine crew.  Present day railway companies might do well to ponder over that state of affairs.
After MR. MASON'S inspection of this particular engine from Moor Row (which came up to scratch for the occasion,)  the Locomotive Superintendent went into the shops with the Moor Row man.  Among the engines in for repair was one of the "Copper Nob's."   Turning to the Moor Row driver, MR. MASON said: -
"How would one of those do for you, Jack?"  Knowing the severe gradients on the Cleator section, the driver replied: "Oh, MR. MASON, that engine would be no use on the Cleator line."
He soon had cause to regret his answer, for MR. MASON promptly treated him to a long lecture on what the "Copper Nobs" had done, and were still capable of doing.
The footplate of these veterans was no place for a weakling.  Cabs were never fitted to them, and on account of their domed fire-boxes weather-boards could not be fitted.
Since they had no foot-framing it was impossible for anyone to get from the footplate to the front buffer-beam while the engine was in motion.  Thus when No. 3 was stationed at Corkickle shed and working regularly  through the Whitehaven tunnel, the fireman had to make the trip sitting on the front buffer-beam.  He did this in order to drop sand down the sanding pipe at the front-end, as no sanding gear was fitted.  Incidentally, the sand was usually wet and must have been pretty ineffectual on the greasy tunnel rails.  Anyone who has made a foot-plate journey through a single-track tunnel of any length on a modern locomotive will appreciate what those buffer-beam rides on a "Copper Nob" must have involved.
By 1851 the increasing iron ore traffic would seem to have kept the four Bury engines fully occupied and the next two engines which appeared that year were a pair of 2-2-2 well tanks, obviously ordered for passenger work.  They were supplied by Sharp Brothers, of Manchester, and had cylinders 14x18 in., driving wheels 5 ft. 6 in. dia., and 120 lbs. working pressure.  Heating surface was 135 sq. ft. and grate area 9 sq. ft.  Their well tanks held 500 gallons of water and the total weight in working order was 30 tons.  Numbered 5 and 6, both little locomotives were scrapped in 1873.
During 1851 the main line was being pushed on towards Ulverston from Lindal and mineral traffic was showing further increases.  It was thus imperative to further augment the locomotive stud.  Pinning their faith to the "Bury" design, the company ordered further 0-4-0 tender engines of this type; this time from MESSRS. FAIRBAIRN & SONS, of Manchester.  These engines were not delivered until 1854 and were numbered 7 to 10 inclusive.  They had cylinders 15x24 in. and coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 in. dia.  The valves were placed on top of the cylinders, the motion being worked by rocking shafts.  Heating surface was 940 sq. ft.  Otherwise these engines were similar to Nos. 1 to 4.  With their 1,000 gallon tenders they weighed 36 tons.  Two of this batch of locomotives were eventually sold to Barrow Haematite Steel Company who converted them into saddle tanks for shunting in the works.  At least one has survived down to 1946.
By 1857 the working of the Ulverston & Lancaster Railway had been taken over and 150,000 passengers, as well as 440,000 tons of ore, were now being handled annually.  Thus more engines were called for once again, and two more well tanks, identical to Nos. 5 and 6, were supplied by Sharp Brothers.  Numbered 11 and 12, they had a short life, compared with their sisters.  No. 11 was sold back to her makers, now Sharp, Stewart & Co., in 1875.  No. 12, which eventually became 12A, was sold about the same time to the Weston, Clevedon and Portishead Railway.  This locomotive killer her fireman on the Coniston branch shortly after her arrival from the makers.  The circumstances of the accident which illustrates very well the haphazard working methods employed in those early days, are worth relating.
No. 12 was working a passenger train from Foxfield Junction to Coniston.  She had her usual train behind her, and a box van attached in front.  This box van was to be detached at Broughton, where the goods siding faced Foxfield, and this was apparently the normal working method for dealing with inwards goods traffic for Broughton yard.  In the meantime, the Whitehaven & Furness Junction 2-2-2 well tank "Oberon" had left Broughton, light for Foxfield.  Her driver and fireman saw No. 12 and her train approaching and realised that the crew of the latter could not see them on account of the box van attached in front of the engine.  They flung their locomotive into reverse and jumped off the footplate.  This action didn't prevent "Oberon" colliding with the box van which was smashed to atoms.  Unfortunately, the fireman of No. 12 had been riding on the front buffer-beam in order to detach the box van at Broughton:  he was killed outright.  Meanwhile, "Oberon," whose regulator had been pushed wide open when her crew put her in reverse, disentangled herself from the wreckage of the box van and set off back towards Broughton.  The resource of the porter at that station saved the situation.  He opened the level crossing gates and let "oberon" run up the long incline of 1 in 49 towards Torver.  She finally came to a stop between the latter station and Woodlands through lack of steam.
In 1864 two more well tanks were delivered, and a further four in 1866.  Sharp, Stewart & Co., were again the suppliers and the numbers allocated were 21,22, and 34 to 37.  these six locomotives differed from the first batch of well tanks in having outside frames and cylinders 15x18 in. dia. They all proved well designed and economical little machines.  Heavier train loads were responsible for their eventual relegation to branch working.  No 21 was sold to the South Shields, Marsden and Whitburn Colliery Railway in 1896, and 22 to a Wigan firm in the same year.
Sharp, Stewart also supplied two four-coupled 0-4-0 saddle tanks for shunting at Barrow Docks in 1864.  They had cylinders 16x 24 in.: 4 feet diameter wheels; 120 lbs. pressure; 669 square feet of heating surface and weighed 24 tons 10 cwt. in working order.  They were numbered 23 and 24.  The same firm also provided 0-4-0 tender engines, cwt. in working order No. 27 and 28. They were similar to the earlier FARIBAIRN design. 
Ten more 0-4-0 goods engines were also supplied between 1858 and 1862 by MESSRS. FAIRBAIRNS.  They were numbered 13 to 20; 25 and 26.  These locomotives had foot, instead of bar frames.  They were gradually disposed of to the Barrow steelworks of MESSRS. SCHNEIDER and HANNAY.
In 1866 appeared the first of the 16 in. cylinder 0-6-0 goods tender engines which were to remain the standard mineral locomotive of the company for nearly 45 years.  Known affectionately as "SHARPIES," these sturdy little engines were all supplied by MESSRS. SHARP, Stewart and Co.  In fact the latter company supplied all the Furness locomotives from 1866 down to 1899, and mostly from their own standard designs.  There were nine "Sharpies"in the first batch which had the following dimensions:  Wheels, 4 ft. 6 1/2 in. diameter; in the first batch which had the following dimensions:  Wheels, 4 ft. 6 1/2 in. diameter; cylinders, 16x24 in.; working pressure, 120 lbs.; tractive effort, 8,360 lbs.  With their four-wheeled tenders they turned the scale at 50 tons 10 cwt. in working order.  The first batch numbered 29 to 33 and 38 to 41.
Nine engines were taken over from the Whitehaven & Furness Junction railway in 1866.  They are described in Chapter IV.  They were numbered 42 to 50 in the Furness list.  Only one, No. 42, "Lonsdale," had a long career with her new owners.  She was re-built pretty extensively and eventually became F.R. No. 66 and finally received the number 12003 from the L.M.S. in 1923.
By 1866 the heavy gradients up each side of Lindal Bank (3 1/2 miles of collar work from Plumpton Junction northbound, and 5 1/2 miles from Askam southbound)  were setting an almost impossible task for the existing locomotives as the train loads steadily increased.  Banking was already in force on both inclines, but engines specially designed for the job were badly needed.  In 1867 this want was supplied by the arrival of the "Neddies."  These were a new class of 0-6-0 banking tank supplied by Sharp, Stewart.  Two were delivered in 1867, two more in 1871, and a further pair in 1873.  The "Neddies" had cylinders, 18x24 ins.; 140 lbs. pressure; and coupled wheels, 4 ft. 7 1/2 ins. dia.  They had long side tanks running the full length of the boiler and carrying 1,000 gallons of water and weighed 44 tons 14 cwt.  They were numbered  51, 52, 58,69, 82, and 83.  No. 51 and 52 did not have a very long life, but the other four, after being replaced on Lindal Bank by heavier bankers in the early nineteen hundreds, did a long spell of work on the heavily graded lines in the Cleator district and on the Cleator & Workington Railway.
During the 19141918 War there were usually a couple of "Neddies" stationed at Moor Row Shed.  The L.M.S. re-numbered them 11549 to 11552.  MR. PETTIGREW fitted them with new boilers after 1896.
Down to 1870 the little 2-2-2 well tanks had been struggling manfully to cope with the rapidly increasing passenger traffic.  They did their best, but time-keeping was almost impossible.
Their lot was made less arduous in 1870 when Sharp, Stewart supplied the first four of a series of 2-4-0 tender engines with 16x20 in. cylinders and 120 lbs. working pressure.  Coupled wheels were 5 ft. 6 in. dia.  These engines received the numbers 1 and 2 (taken over from the first two "Copper Nobs" and now scrapped,)  and 57 and 58.
Three 0-6-0 saddle tanks were supplied this year by Manning, Wardle & Co., of Leeds, for Barrow Docks.
These new 2-4-0's were destined to be the standard passenger engine on the Furness Railway for the next 25 years and the class ultimately grew to 18 locomotives.  Nos. 47 and 48 appeared in 1872, taking the numbers of two little W. & F.J. 2-2-2 well tanks.  Six more were also delivered in the same year, numbered 70 to 75 inclusive.  A final batch of four were built and delivered in 1882.
Even after the appearance in 1896 of the first 4-4-0 type, the days of the 2-4-0's were not over.  In 1891 seven of them were converted into 2-4-2 tanks and sent to replace a number of the veteran 2-2-2 well tanks which were then struggling valiantly, but pretty ineffectively, with trains on the various branch lines which had also greatly increased in weight.  As these engines were rebuilt they had lengthened frames and 1,000 gallon side-tanks fitted.  In this form most of them survived down to 1918.  Not unnaturally their last duties were on the Cleator district "joint lines" and on the C. W. Railway.  Nos. 47, 48 and 70 to 75 were the ones to be rebuilt as tanks.  Two of this 2-4-0 class survived in their original form (apart from the fitting of steel boilers and a few other refinements) down to the 1923 grouping.  They were 44A and 45A.  One of them received its L.M.S. number (10002.)
Returning to goods engines, the first band of 16 in "Sharpies" received re-inforcements in 1871.  A further 18 of this class were put into traffic that year.  They received the number 17 to 21, 43, 53, to 56, 59 to 65, and 67.  Nos. 17 to 21 replaced a batch of 0-4-0 goods engines and a 2-2-2 tank which were disposed of to the Barrow Steel Company.  No. 43 took over the number carried by ex-W. & F. J. 0-6-0 "King Lear" which was scrapped.  A further dozen "Sharpies: came along in 1873 and were numbered as follows: 25 and 26, 76 to 79, 80, 81, and 84 to 87.  The original Nos. 25 and 26 (Two more 0-4-0's) were sold.  Yet another half-dozen were delivered in 1875 and numbered 88 to 93.  This brought the class up to 45 examples.
Two new 0-4-0 dock shunting tanks were put to work in 1875.  They differed from earlier examples in having the dome over the centre of the boiler instead of the firebox.
As related in Chapter VII the locomotives of the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway were taken over in 1878.  they were re-numbered 98 to 113.  All had long careers, mainly on their :home ground," except No. 108 (W. C. & E. No. 12,"Marron") and No. 113 (W. C. & E. NO. 3, "Victoria".)  The former was scrapped in 1904 and the latter sold in 1897.
The last eight "Sharpies" were delivered in 1881 and were allocated Nos. 114 to 119, 49 and 50.  The latter did not actually go into traffic until 1882 and took the numbers formerly carried by two W. & F. J. 2-2-2 tanks which were sold.
As already stated, the last 2-4-0 passenger engines came out in 1882.  They took their numbers (44 and 45) from the W. & F. J. 0-4-2's, "Mars" and "Sirius" which were broken up.  Two further 0-6-0's had been ordered in 1882 and were to be numbered 121 and 122, but immediately after delivery they were re-sold to the Liverpool, Southport and Preston Junction Railway.
During the next eight years (1882-1890) no more new locomotives were put into traffic, but by 1890 the passenger department had fresh needs to be satisfied.  The new and improved "boat trans" from the Midland Railway to Barrow Docks called for something "bigger and better" to haul them.  The result was the appearance in 1891 of the first Furness -4-4-0.  The class, which was given the nickname of "Seagull," had cylinders, 17x24 in.; driving wheels, 5 ft. 7 1/2 in. dia.; and 140 lbs. pressure.  The heating surface was 1,040 sq. ft., and the total weight with tender, 60 tons 10 cwt.  The numbers allocated were 120 to 123.
A larger version of the "Seagulls" came out in 1896 and comprised six locomotives.  In this class the diameter of the cylinders was increased to 18 inches, the stroke remaining the same.  Driving wheels were also larger (6 ft. dia.) and the heating surface rose to 1,208 sq. ft.  Numbered 32 to 37 these 4-4-0's turned the scale at 69 tons 10 cwt., with tender.  The original Nos. 32 to 37 (two "Sharpies" and four 2-2-2- tanks) were cut up.
This brings us down to the end of the first 50 years of the Furness Railway locomotive history.  As will be seen, train weights were still going up steadily and the call for bigger and more powerful engines was as insistent as ever.  The new bogie passenger locomotives were the answer to the latter department's needs, but the requirements of the goods and mineral traffic were even greater and more urgent.  By the close of the 19th Century the little "Sharpies, " with their 16 in. cylinders were being taxed beyond their powers to deal with the loads they were rostered to haul.  In Chapter XII we shall see how their relief was eventually supplied.
Towards the close of the 19th Century the Furness Railway had got into something of a rut.  The passenger service was uninspired; the coaching stock out of date and the locomotive power once again inadequate to handle the still increasing train loads.  It seemed obvious that some new blood was required on the administrative side to instil some vigour and enterprise into the policy of the company.
Happily, such an event took place in 1895.  In that year MR. COOK, who had served the Company faithfully for nearly 30 years (and the W. & F. J. R. for 20 years before that)  retired.  His position as secretary was filled by MR. ALFRED ASLETT.  The latter came from the Cambrian Railway where he had occupied a similar post.  Coming to the Furness when the area served by the Company was suffering from a trade depression, MR. ASLETT was the right man for the job.  The concern from which he came relied mainly on passenger traffic for its revenue, and it was to such source of income that the Furness now looked for increasing returns.  In the meantime the retiring Secretary was presented with a brougham (amongst other things ) by the Company on his retirement.  Slightly over 12 months after MR. ASLETT'S arrival at Barrow, SIR JAMES RAMSDEN died.  He had served the Furness Railway faithfully and well from its inception, and had been the moving spirit in the development of the Barrow docks and harbour.  One of the docks bore his name and he had been mayor of the town.  His position as General Manager was then taken over by MR. ASLETT, who continued to be Secretary of the Company also.
The new Manager didn't waste much time in putting a number of new ideas into practice.  He quickly realised the potentialities of the Furness territory from a tourist traffic point of view and saw that too little attention had been paid to it in the past.  Only four combined rail and coach tours were in operation during the summer months, and MR. ASLETT quickly organised no less than 20.
Of these, the pride of MR. ASLETT'S heart was the "six lakes tour"  which embraced Windermere, Ullswater, Derwentwater, Thirlmere, Grasmere and Rydal Water, all for 13/-.  This charge included steamer fares on Windermere and Ullswater, coach travel between the latter two lakes, rail travel from Penright to Keswick over the Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith line and coaching again from Keswick back to the steamer at Ambleside.  Another popular short tour included a visit to Cartmel Priory and Holker Hall, for 4/3.
In the summer of 1896 a Sunday service of steamers was introduced on Windermere, and a series of cheap day tickets to pleasure resorts at single rate for the return journey, were issued.  Mr. ASLETT also put in operation cheap weekly tickets, allowing for six journeys a week between any two stations on the system.
In 1897 it was decided to abolish 2nd class fares (except on the West Cumberland Joint Lines since the L. & N. W. R. still retained 2nd class.)  To replace the old fares, a new variety, entitled "reserved 3rd " was brought out.  By booking under this heading the passenger got a reserved seat and a small extra fee was added to the normal 3rd class rate.
A new development was undertaken by The Naval Construction & Armament Co. (now MESSRS. VICKERS, Sons & Maxim Ltd.)  in the same year (1897.)  This was the establishment of a Gun Testing Range on the foreshore near Eskmeals, some miles north of Millom.
In 1896 MR. MASON, the Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent, retired after 50 years of service with the company.  His successor, MR. W. F. Pettigrew, was immediately confronted with the task of not only designing bigger and better locomotives but improved coaching stock as well.  How he coped with the locomotive situation is dealt with in the next chapter.
For the comfort of the traveller on the Furness metals, MR. PETTIGREW designed a series of semi-corridor bogie coaches which compared with favourably with the rolling stock on most of the larger lines in the country.  They were lit with electric lighting on Stone's system and before long most of the other passenger stock was similarly equipped.  The new coaches were also fitted with an ingenious device by which an ingenious device by which an aromatic disenfectant was discharged into the lavatory compartments every time the doors were opened or closed.  The new semi-corridors were first put on the through services between Barrow and Leeds and Bradford; especially on the Belfast boat trains for which the Midland Railway had previously supplied the best coaches.  Later, when through carriages were run to Leeds and Bradford from Whitehaven, Coniston and Lakeside, this new stock was employed.
MR. ASLETT'S virile policy soon bore fruit.  Between 1895 and 1898 the number of passenger fares went up by 265,344, representing an increase of 12%.  this big rise in passenger revenue helped to off-set the decline in other directions, caused by the trade slump during this period.  During 1896, for  example, the Barrow steel works were closed for six months, during which time 4,000 men were out of work.
By 1898 trade was improving again and in that year goods traffic was up by 17,330 tons and minerals by 55,159 tons, in addition to the steady passenger increase already mentioned.  Messrs. Vickers were now employing 7,000 men in their shipyards at Barrow and a scheme to dredge the Piel Bar near the harbour entrance was completed at a cost of £ 30,000.  Barrow docks now covered an area of 294 acres.  The entrance to the Ramsden dock was 100 feet wide and crane power up to 100 tons lifting capacity had been provided.  While the replacement of the locomotives and rolling stock was going on, the permanent way also received considerable attention.  All the main lines had been re-laid with rails weighing 99 lbs. to the yard and 45 lb. chairs, while sections of 100 lb. flat-bottomed rails were laid experimentally.
Even during the winter months of 1901, through coaches were run from London (Euston and St. Pancras,) Liverpool and Manchester to Barrow and Whitehaven; as well as to and from Sheffield, Leeds and Bradford.
As from January 1st, 1898, cheap day tickets at single fare for the return journey, were issued by all trains, all the year round.  Other innovations were short date and long dated week-end and tourist tickets, the latter being available for two months from the date of issue.
In 1900 an additional steamer was placed in service on Windermere.  This was the "Swift,"  gross tonnage 203, built by T. B. Seath & Co.
During 1898 the Company had to provide a number of extra mineral wagons for the Cleator and Workington Railway and also built 15 new tabular frame bogie wagons for handing steel rail traffic between the Barrow steelworks and the docks.  This in turn released a number of "flats" to cope with the increasing amount of timber which the company were handling.
As the town of Barrow grew steadily (the population had now reached 60,000, compared with a mere 5,000 in 1860,)  an increasing number of people resided on Walney Island, opposite the town.  A somewhat primitive kind of ferry had been operating between Walney and the mainland, but in 1901 Mr. Pettigrew designed a new one for the job.  Built by the company, it had a hull 72 feet long.  With a width of 36 feet and a depth of 8 feet, the new ferry was fitted with two deck-houses 52 feet long and 10 feet wide.  During its first year in service, 520,000 passengers were carried.
For the year 1900 a dividend of 7% was paid.  During the first half of 1901, 682,765 passengers were carried and 780,222 tons of goods and minerals.  In 1901, on the recommendation of Mr. Aslett, work was commenced on the lowering of the sill of the Ramsden dock at Barrow by six feet, in order to allow the largest warship to enter the port.  This scheme was completed towards the end of the year, and was of great benefit to Messrs. Vickers, Sons & Maxim.
On the night of February 27th, 1903, a particularly violent storm broke over the North West Coast.  This was responsible for a remarkable accident on the Furness Railway which might have resulted in a serious loss of life.  In the early hours of the morning of February 28th, the down Barrow and Whitehaven mail was crossing Levens Viaduct.  Unknown to the driver and train crew the severe gale had blown down the telegraph wires.  The latter became entangled with the vacuum brake pipe on one of the coaches with the result that the connection was severed and the train brought to a standstill near the centre of the viaduct.  Just after it stopped a particularly fierce gust of wind stuck the train, which consisted of half-a-dozen coaches and a mail sorting van.  Except the latter and the engine (to which the van was attached at the front of the train)  the remaining coaches were blown over on their sides.  Fortunately, they did not fall over the low parapet into the water below.  Thirty-three people were injured, but luckily none severely, and the line was cleared for normal traffic within nine hours.
Since the commencement of his reign at Barrow, MR. ASLETT had done much to develop the steamer route between Barrow and Fleetwood; as a means of attracting holiday-makers at Blackpool to visit the Lake District.  Up to 1903 the paddle steamer "Lady Evelyn" had been engaged on this run in the summer months.  She was 200 feet long, and a 24 foot beam, and had a speed of 16 knots.  In 1903 the company put another paddle boat in commission.  This was the "Lady Margaret."  She was built by MESSRS. McMILLAN of Dumbarton, and was 210 feet long with a 25 foot beam.  With a top speed of 17 knots, "Lady Margaret" had accommodation for 700 passengers.  The growing popularity of this service is shown by the fact that "Lady Evelyn" alone carried over 41,000 passengers in 1903, as compared with 28,000 in 1901.  Taken all round, 1903 wasn't such a prosperous year for the Company, and the dividend fell to 5 1/2%.
The Midland Railway were causing the Furness some anxiety by 1904 as the big company had been pressing on with their Heysham Harbour scheme and the later port was opened on September 1st, 1904.  Naturally, the Furness saw their traffic to Belfast and the Isle of Man being seriously affected by the alternative (and quicker) route which the Midland were now operating.  Some protracted negotiations were now entered into between the two companies.  However, in 1905, Mr. Aslett was able to report a fairly favourable outcome.  The Midland agreed to maintain a service via Barrow for three years and to the Isle of Man for a shorter period.  The latter purchased the interest of the Furness and Messrs. LITTLE & Co. in the steamer service for £ 45,000.  They also guaranteed to route a proportion of their competitive traffic to and from Belfast via Barrrow, so on the whole the Furness got a fairly reasonable deal.
Probably with a view to popularising the Barrow route to the Isle of Man, MR. ASLETT was able to arrange a through service with the North-Eastern Railway from Newcastle-on-Tyne to Barrow, during the summer months.  This was put into operation on July 1st, 1905.  Running via Darlington, Kirkby Stephen and Tebay (from whence the F. R. had running powers over the L.N.W.R. to Hindcaster Junction,)  the morning train left Newcastle (Central) at 9.30 a.m. and arrived at Barrow at 2.10 to connect with the afternoon boat to Douglas.  The return train left Barrow at 12.15 p.m. (after the arrival of the morning steamer from Douglas)  and reached Newcastle at 5.7 p.m.
A new paddle steamer was put in service in 1905.  this was the "Gwalia,"  afterwards re-named "Lady Moyra"  after a member of the Cavendish family.  "Lady Moyra" was 247 feet long and 29 feet wide, and had a speed of 19 knots.  During the same year MR. PETTIGREW designed a rail motor for the Lakeside branch.  Seating 12 first and 36 third class passengers, the car was 60 ft. 11 ins. long over buffer, with a 48 ft. wheelbase.  Cylinders 11x14 ins., with Walchaert Valve Gear, drove coupled wheels 2 ft. 10 ins. in diameter.  Working pressure was 100 lbs. and water capacity 300 gallons.  A second one was built later.  Both were scrapped in 1918.
A "bigger wagon" policy was inaugurated in 1906 when the Company ordered 100 wagons of 15 tons capacity.  A new combined rail, sea, lake and coach tour was freely advertised by coloured posters and in the special guide book which was now issued annually.  This started from Blackpool and took the tourist by steamer from Fleetwood to Barrow; thence by rail to Lakeside and then by steamer again up to Ambleside.  From the latter a coach ran to Coniston from which rail travel was again resumed back to Barrow and the steamer back to Fleetwood.  The whole trip was laid on for 7/6.  In spite of the energetic policy carried out by MR. ASLETT (he was now a J.P. and a member of the Barrow Chamber of Commerce,)  contraction in local trade and a steady increase in working and other expenditure were still reducing the annual dividend.  It was 5% in 1903; 3 3/4 % in 1905; and 3% in 1906.
Bad weather during the tourist season and still no improvement in the iron and steel industries made 1907 another poor year.  Passenger revenue just held its own, showing an increase of a mere £ 187.  Goods and mineral returns were nearly £800 lower than in 1906.  However, 1908 opened with a number of new schemes.  Most of them concerned Barrow docks and the steamer services.
The bridge over the Buccleuch dock was widened during the year at a cost of £10,000.  This was to enable ships with a beam of 95 feet to be built at Barrow.  A new bascule bridge was also constructed between the Ramsden and Buccleuch docks and another bridge, connecting Walney Island with the mainland was opened.  This enabled the steam ferry to be abandoned.
On Coniston Lake the old "gondola" had done faithful service since 1859.  MR. PETTIGREW now designed an improved model, 90 feet long and 15 feet wide.  Power was supplied by two pairs of high pressure cylinders 10x10 ins., working at 120 pressure.  The new vessel was equipped with two cabins and had a speed of 11 knots.  she was built near Southampton and then sent in parts by rail to Coniston were she was re-assembled.
For the Fleetwood-Barrow pleasure services, a further paddle steamer commenced operations in 1908.  This was the "Philomel."  She was 236 feet long and had a beam of 27 feet.  Accommodation for 1,000 passengers was provided, and she had a top speed of 14 knots.  During this year the Franco-British Exhibition was held and the enterprising MR. ASLETT took a stand there on which the attractions of the Lake District were attractively displayed and a special series of folders, written in French, were issued.  In spite of all these efforts, however, the dividend for 1908 reached a "new low" 3/4%.  The following year it rose fractionally to 7/8%.
The Duke of Devonshire died in 1908. and his place as chairman was filled by his nephew, The Marquis of Hartington, who later succeeded to the title.  He had joined the board in 1890.  In 1909 the Company's Engineer, MR. W. W. WHITWORTH, retired on account of ill-health.  He was succeeded by MR. D. L. RUTHERFORD, who came from the North British Railway.  In the same year MR. E. J. RAMSDEN, son of the late Sir JAMES RAMSDEN, joined the board of directors.  He had been Superintendent of the line since 1896.
During the period of depression through which the area served by the Furness was passing at this time, the Company put on a through coach of an unusual kind.  This was from Whitehaven to Southampton on Friday nights, for the benefit of the large number of people who were emigrating to South Africa, Australia and Canada.  The coach was "prepared" at Barrow in the afternoon and sent north to Whitehaven to be attached to the evening up mail.
The number of people patronising the Fleetwood-Barrow steamer service showed a welcome increase in 1910.  the number going up by over 25,000 compared with the previous year.  The total was 127,000.  This was a better year financially, the number of passengers carried being 3,068,982 and the goods and minerals totalled 4,288,963 tons.  A dividend of 2 1/8% was declared.
The Cavendish dock was now leased to MESSRS. VICKERS, and an electric crane of 150 tons lifting capacity had been erected at the Buccleuch dock.
The directors had now laid it down that all apprentices should attend technical classes organised by the Barrow Education Committee, and all successful students were given increased pay.  Classes for first aid had also been organised, and a special shield was competed for annually by teams from various parts of the system.  The Bury locomotive "Copper Nob, "  which was withdrawn from service in 1907, was now installed in her "glass case" at Barrow Central station.
Some accelerations and improvements were made to the train services in the summer of 1911.  The 4-43 p.m. from Carnforth was speeded up to reach Whitehaven at 7-10 p.m., and with the Euston through coaches leaving there at 11-25, the time from London to Whitehaven was cut to 7 hrs. 45 min.  On Mondays only the morning through carriage to London left Whitehaven at 7-45 instead of 6-40 and still arrived at Euston at the same time.
Now that the Midland only had a secondary interest in the steamer services from barrow the Belfast and the Isle of Man, the through coaches from St. Pancras to the Furness line were cancelled, but through carriages were still run on quite a generous scale from Bradford and Leeds.  the area did not suffer by this absence of the St. Pancras direct run, as the L.N.W. provided a quicker route to and from Euston, with better facilities.
About this time MR. ASLETT was the prime mover in another small, but novel, idea to still further foster the tourist attractions for the Furness territory.  The Company purchased the house, "High Cocken,"  which had been the residence of the painter,  GEORGE ROMNEY, and his father from 1742 to 1755.  The house was renovated and a museum established there, a small charge being made for admission.
Nothing of special moment occurred during the following year.  Neither 1911 or 1912 were so successful from a financial point of view, the dividends being below 2%, but in 1913 things were on the up-grade again.  Quite an impressive list of improvements were recorded at the Annual Meeting.  The number of passengers had gone up by 515,705 compared with 1912.  The passenger revenue was up by £ 45,000 compared with fifteen years previously (another tribute to MR. ASLETT'S astute policy of developing the tourist appeal of the area,)  while the steamer services were carrying 30% more passengers than in the previous year.  Goods and mineral traffic was also up by 528,000 tons.  The year also saw the finishing of another expensive improvement to the shipping facilities at Barrow.  This was the widening and deepening of the Walney Channel and the final dredging of Piel Bar.  The ordinary shareholders received 2 1/2 %.
Since 1913 saw the final development of the through connections between the Furness Railway and other lines, prior to the 1914-1918 War.
In the summer of 1914 the only alteration to the train service was the provision of a new semi-fast-train leaving Whitehaven for Carnforth at 8-53 a.m., and giving an arrival at Euston at 5-7 p.m.
The viaducts over the Leven and Kent estuaries which had been built 57 years previously, were now further strengthened so that the speed limits which had been imposed thereon were abolished.  This work cost £ 48,000.
During the 18 years in which Mr. Aslett had been at Barrow, passenger traffic had increased by 102% and the gross receipts by 65%.  This was equivalent to a 1 1/2 % dividend on the Ordinary Stock.
When the Great War broke out the Furness Railway owned 136 locomotives; 362 coaching vehicles; 3,939 open and 2,335 mineral wagons; 304 covered wagons; 126 cattle trucks; 711 rail and timer trucks; 87 goods brake vans; and 357 service vehicles.  The total length of track owned ( reduced to single line and including sidings) was 428 miles 55 chains.  The total engine miles run during the year was 2,798,191, of which passenger traffic made up 837, 564 miles and goods traffic 805, 023 miles.  the balance was made up by banking and shunting duties.  The severe gradients on both sides of Lindal and on the "Joint Lines" accounted for the banking mileage reaching a total of 318,281 miles.  The Company also owned 153 houses which were occupied by its own staff, and over 800 other buildings.
Owing to contraction in all branches of traffic and the heavy expenditure on the viaduct strengthening scheme, plus a fairly large locomotive renewal programme, no more than a half-per-cent dividend could be declared for 1914.  The next four years were to tax the resources of the Furness Railway to the utmost, as will be seen in the next chapter.
The Great War found the Furness Railway serving an area which was destined to play a big part in Great Britain's war effort.  Since the railway served Barrow, with its naval construction yards, and the gun-making plant of MESSRS.  VICKERS, as well as the series of blast furnace plants at Carnforth, Ulverston, Barrow, Millom, and in the Cleator district, it can be imagined that a great increase in the volume of goods and mineral traffic would result.
For example, after 12 months of war, the cost of wagon renewals was up by £ 10,000 compared with 1912, and on the passenger side no less than 3,000 workmen's tickets were issued.  The company were compelled to provide a number of additional passenger coaches to cope with the traffic.  In spite of the heavy rise in expenditure, the increasing revenue in all departments enabled the dividend to be increased to 2% for 1915.
In 1916 the Duke of Devonshire resigned from the chairmanship on being appointed Civil Lord of the Admiralty.  Lord Muncaster, who had become a director in 1890, took his place, but resigned a year later.  He died at the end of March, 1917, and was succeeded by the Deputy Chairman, MR. F. J. RAMSDEN.
Goods and mineral traffic went up to 4,959,332 tons during 1916 and the dividend was 2 1/4% for the year.  This figure was maintained until 1919.
The continued wagon shortage compelled the company to hire a large number of trucks from South Wales, and the locomotive position became even ore acute.  Assistance was forthcoming from the L. & N. W.;  North-Eastern, and Maryport & Carlisle Railways, and how this was employed is shown later in this chapter.
During 1916 the Furness Railway purchased £ 50,000 of War Loan as a contribution to the war effort.  An all time record for the amount of mineral traffic handled by the company was set up during 1917, when the tonnage was 5,410,039 tons.  In the same year the management of the Furness Abbey Hotel was taken over.  The number of employees who had joined the services now totaled 420.  A further 348 wagons were hired during the year, and 116 women were employed by the company.
We now turn to consider some of the special working arrangements which came into force during the War, especially where they concerned the workings of "foreign" locomotives over Furness metals.
It has already been noted that the Furness had running powers over the metals of the L.N.W.R. from Hindcaster Junction to Oxenholme, in order that their passenger trains from Arnside could reach Kendal.  They had similar powers as far as Tebay on the main line to Penrith and Carlisle, so that they could work train loads of Durham blast-furnace coke, which were handed over to them by the N.E.R. at Tebay, through to the various plants on their system.  These trains were worked to Tebay from the various coke-ovens in Durham via Darlington, Barnard Castle and Kirkby Stephen.  Under special war-time arrangements, North-Eastern locomotives worked some of these trains right through to Lindal Ore Depot Sidings and Barrow.  Certain goods trains off the L.N.E.R. at Carnforth were also worked as far as Barrow by North-Western locomotives.  At the northern end of the system, the 7-5 p.m. up mail train was handled as far as Millom by a Maryport & Carlisle 0-4-2 tender engine, which returned from Millom to Whitehaven with the last down passenger turn of the day.  Another innovation was the running through to Workington of the morning down fast goods from Barrrow to Whitehaven.  This saved a good deal of exchange shunting at Corkickle Sidings, and cut out a L.N.W.R. turn from Workington to Corkickle and back.
Sunday goods workings were also introduced; a great novelty on the system.  They consisted largely of Admiralty coal specials.  These were destined for naval bases in Scotland and were worked round by the Furness and Maryport & Carlisle systems to relieve congestion on the main route over Shap.  Not unnaturally they received the nickname of "Jellicoes."  L.N.W. 0-6-0 "Cauliflowers"  invariably worked these trains, which usually consisted of 50-odd wagons.
The huge increase in goods and mineral traffic made a number of improvements on the Furness essential, expecially as regards additional facilities for more speedy handling of the trains.  On the sandhills near Eskmeals, MESSRS. VICKER'S gun-testing establishment was greatly extended during the war.  In connection with it the firm had quite an extensive private railway and this was connected to the Furness line by a spur just south of Eskmeals.  A halt platform, named "Monkmoors" was built beside the point where the spur line branched off and special workmen's trains were run to Monkmoors from Barrow and Millom.
On account of the greatly increased number of workings the block section between Bootle and Silecroft, which was over five miles long, was cut by putting in an intermediate signal box at Stangrah.  The signal posts there were all of concrete, similar to those in use on the Great Northern Railway.
To alleviate congestion at the Corkickle end of the tunnel from there to Bransty Station, a new cross-over, from the double tracked "Joint Line" to the Furness single one, was put in about a mile south of Mirehouse Junction, just before the two tracks parted company.  A new signal box was also erected (Corkickle No. 1.)  After this the whole of the original Furness single track from Corkickle No. 1 to No. 3 box became a "permissive" goods road and all passenger trains used the "Joint Line" between Corkickle NO. 1 and No. 3.  At Barrow many miles of new sidings were laid out to accommodate the many additional trains which had to be marshalled and dispatched.  By the time the War was over, the Furness Railway was really feeling the strain.  Fortunately, a number of new engines were delivered in 1918, for they were badly needed.
In April 1918, MR.  ASLETT retired, at the age of 71.  The War years had tried him severely.  During his 23 year at Barrrow he had done great work for the company.  His retirement was universally regretted, as he had been closely identified with the town and trade of Barrow, apart from his position as secretary and general manager of the railway.  Shortly after his leaving, he was presented with his portrait in oils by the company.
In the same year the sum of £ 100,000 was spent on a new and larger dry dock at Barrow; this would accommodate the largest ships using the port.
During the first year after the War ended slightly under 3,000,000 tons of goods and minerals were dealt with and slightly over 5,000,000 passengers carried.
MR. D.L. Rutherford succeeded MR. W. F. PETTIGREW as Locomotive Superintendent in 1919, and in the same year the Company founded a University Scholarship, valued at £ 100 for three years.  This was open to any employee with more than one year's service.
The trade boom which followed the end of the war kept the Furness fairly busy, but by 1921 things had slackened off and the cost of many renewals which had been held up since 1914 were having their effect on the financial returns.  The dividend fell to 1% in 1921.
the Company started its own staff journal, "The Furness Railway Magazine,"  in 1920.  Mainly as an economy measure that coaching stock was painted blue all over from 1920 onwards, instead of blue with while upper panels as it had been since the 1870's.  Prior to then the livery had been varnished teak.
Before giving a final survey of the Company immediately before it was absorbed into the London, Midland & Scottish Railway, a summary of the train workings in their last form is interesting.  The arrangements in force during the summer of 1922 will give a good example, as they remained fairly constant from 1919 to 1923.
Dealing first with the passenger trains which ran over the entire length of the main line, the day commenced (in the down direction) with the 4-40 a.m."down mail."  this stopped for two minutes at Grange to drop mails only and reached Barrow at 5-36, having stopped at Ulverston and Dalton.  After a ten minute stop at Barrow, the mail called at Foxfield Junction and reached Millom at 6-13 a.m.  Leaving Millom at 6-18, it stopped for mails only at Bootle and Drigg and, omitting stops at Netherton and Braystones, reached Whitehaven (Bransty Station ) at 7-25 a.m.  Admittedly, running was not impressive North of Barrow, but allowance must be made for a nine-minute stop at Sellafield to "cross" the 6-35 a.m. up train from Whitehaven, before entering the single track section from Sellafield to Corkickle No. 1 Signal Box.  Speed throughout, excluding stops, was in the region of 35 m.p.h.
The next rain left Carnforth at 6-55 a.m. and omitting five stops, reached Whitehaven at 10 o'clock.  another "slow," leaving at 9-53 a.m., got to the northern terminus of the line at 1-20 p.m.  This train called at all stations.  The 1-30 p.m. was an exactly similar effort and got to Bransty station at 4-55 p.m., through coaches which left Euston at 6-35 a.m. for Barrow and Whitehaven were attached.  The last two departures from Carnforth for Whitehaven were at 4-20 p.m. and 7-10 p.m.  the former was described as a "fast passenger," but although it only called at Grange, Ulverston and Barrow between Carnforth and Millom, it was an "all stations" run on from the latter and carried "slow lights"  from there.  through carriages from Euston (departing at 10-30 a.m.)  were conveyed and Bransty was reached at 7-10 p.m.
The 7-10 p.m. was the fastest down run on the system.  It made seven stops, plus four conditional ones (to drop passengers from south of Carnforth) and two additional stops on Saturday nights only.  Rather oddly no extra running time was allowed on Saturdays.  The through coaches leaving Euston at 1-30 p.m. were conveyed on this train which reached Whitehaven at 9-35 p.m. and averaged 37 m.p.h., excluding stops.  Among the staff this was always know as the "boat train," a survival from the '80's.  
In the up direction the day began with the 6-35 a.m. "slow" from Whitehaven.  Two stops were omitted between St. Bees and Seascale, and then it was "all stations to Carnforth"  The latter was reached at 9-55a.m.  A through carriage to Euston on this working arrived there at 4-30 p.m.  The 10-15 a.m. didn't miss a single station and got to Carnforth at 1-43 p.m.
At 11-35 a.m. the best up train of the day left Whitehaven for the South.  Only five stops were made (St. Bees, Seascale, Millom, Barrow and Ulverston,)  plus a conditional (for south of Carnforth passengers only)  at Ravenglass.  Through carriages to Euston (and to Leeds from Whitehaven in the summer, and from Barrow all the year round)  were attached and eventually the rest of the train ran through to Preston.  This "express" got to Carnforth at 1-53 p.m. and averaged nearly 38 m.p.h.  the Euston coaches arrived in London at 7-30 p.m.
"Slow lights" were carried by the 1-50 p.m. from Bransty since it called at all stations to Millom.  From there "fast lights" were substituted, as stops were only made at Foxfield, Barrow and Ulverston.  This "semi-fast" arrived at Carnforth at 4-38 p.m. and the arrival time for the through coaches to Euston was 10-45 p.m.  Five calls were missed out by the 3-5 p.m. and two minutes under three hours were required to complete its run.
At 5-30 p.m. "The Bond" left Whitehaven for Carnforth, calling at all stations.  It picked up mails from the small stations, and acted as a link to the 7-0 p.m. down mail.  this train earned its strange title on account of the fact that the guard was invariably a man of that name.
The last through up trip was the 7-0 p.m. mail.  Compared with the 11-35 a.m. it made two additional stops (at Sellafield and Askam) and the booked time at Carnforth was 9-22 p.m.  the average speed was a little below that of the morning "express."
A brief summary of the intermediate services will complete our picture of the passenger trains on the Furness main line.
Five trains left Carnforth daily of which all terminated at Barrow except one.  the exception was the -25 p.m., which ran to Millom, arriving there at 6-35 p.m.  The first of these intermediate runs (the 5-40 a.m. from Carnforth)  consisted of an engine and van as far as Grange-over-Sands, to which mails only were conveyed.  After a 20 minute stop at Grange to attach passenger coaches, this train proceeded normally to Barrow. The last run of the day was the 10-40 p.m. from Carnforth.  This train brought the through carriages off the 4-50 p.m. from Euston and made two booked and four conditional stops (to set down from south of Carnforth only)  between Carnforth and Barrow. Being the last passenger run on to the system from the other railways the 10-40 p.m. was always referred to as "the Whip."
In the up direction four additional runs were made from Barrow to Carnforth with an extra one on Saturdays only.  This was an excursion to Manchester.  None of these trains call for any special comment, except the 9-15 a.m., which had a through carriage to Euston, and only stopped at Ulverston and Grange-over-Sands.
Between Barrow and Ulverston about five local runs in each direction were provided and one or two of these were extended to Grange.  There were also three additional trains each way between Barrow and Millom.  One of these in each direction ran to and from the Barrow shipyard for the benefit of the many workmen employed there.  From Millom to Whitehaven there was a daily "all stations" run at 7-45 a.m. and a "market special" from Barrow to Whitehaven at 9-45 a.m. on Thursdays only.
On Sundays the timetable was very simple.  Two trains, calling at all stations, ran over the main line from end to end.  Departures from Carnforth were 7-35 a.m. and 5-20 p.m. from Whitehaven at 10-10 a.m. and 5-43 p.m.  Only the 10-10 a.m. started from Bransty station, the other departure and both arrivals were from and to Corkickle station only.  This was done to enable the engineers to take charge of the Whitehaven tunnel, which was showing signs of "wear and tear."  Nearly 25 years later the L.M. & S. company are still engaged on "preserving" its interior fabric.
The rest of the Sunday service consisted of a couple of trips each way between Barrow and Carnforth, one evening trip from Barrow to Millom only, and about half-a-dozen runs to and from Ulverston from Barrow. A number of the latter trains ran through to Lakeside during the summer months.  There was also an afternoon through run from Barrow to Coniston on Sundays, from June to September.
It will be recalled that the Furness Railway had running powers over the L.& N.W. main line to Lancaster.  They were also empowered to run direct into Morecambe by the single line spur from Hest Bank to Bare.  After the War a certain number of through trains were run to and from Barrow to both Lancaster and Morecambe.  In the summer months too, at least two through trains were run between Lancaster and Lakeside, Windermere.  They ran direct on to the Lakeside branch via the Leven Curve, thus avoiding reversal at Ulverston.  As these trains ran in connection with the Furness steamer service up to Bowness and Ambleside, they proved popular with day visitors to the Southern Lake District and the surrounding areas.
In the summer of 1922 these through runs to Lakeside started from Morecambe.  The morning departure from the latter was at 9-40 a.m., reaching Windermere (Lakeside Pier)  at 11-2 a.m.  This connected with the 11-25 a.m. steamer to Ambleside.  In the reverse direction the return trip left Lakeside at 6-30 p.m.  (after the arrival of the steamer from Ambleside at 6-10 p.m.)  Travellers were back in Morecambe at 8-5 p.m.  Most of the through trains between Barrow and Lancaster ran on Sundays, but there was usually one weekday turn in each direction and one from Lancaster to Grange on Wednesdays only.  The train services provided on the branch lines varied according to the time of year, but Coniston and Lakeside had between six and eight trips each way and the Kendal branch one or two less.
As will have been noticed the best trains on the main line could not be described as particularly speedy, especially when compared with the schedules in operation 25 years earlier.  However it must be remembered that the Furness had hardly got over the effects of four years of war conditions.  It was only in 1920  that MR. RUTHERFORD'S big "Baltic" tank appeared and no doubt some substantial improvements in the timings would have come into force had the Grouping not intervened in 1923.
Since goods and mineral traffic had invariably been the biggest item on the Furness Railway, and for many years the mainstay of the prosperity, we naturally find a preponderance of such workings on the line.
Before considering the time-table in force in 1922, when the traffic had fallen off considerably, let us take a look at the main flows of goods and minerals on the system.
To begin with there was normally a heavy tonnage of raw materials in one direction, and of finished and semi-finished products in both directions, between Carnforth and Ulverston (North Lonsdale Ironworks) and Carnforth and Barrow.  To this must be added the coke traffic from Durham to Ulverston, Barrow and Millom, together with the local ore traffic from mines in the Lindal and Dalton areas to the blast furnaces at all those three places.  At the northern end of the line, the Millom and Askam Iron Company not only drew their iron ore from the mines at Hodbarrow, but from pits in the Cleator district as well.  Furthermore, there was a considerable pig iron tonnage from the Whitehaven Haematite Iron Company's plant at Cleator Moor which went south via the Furness Railway.  There were also a number of iron and steel plants in the Workington area and quite a heavy tonnage from there to Midlands and South was routed via Whitehaven  and Barrow.  Finally there was the considerable goods and general merchandise traffic to and from the Barrow Docks.  Bearing all this in mind the "layout" of the goods train working timetables will be more easily appreciated.
Starting once again from the Carnforth end, we find 11 goods trains booked to start from there each weekday in mid-1922.  All except two were designated "fats."  The exceptions were the roadside turns to Lindal and the Kendal branch.
The destinations of the fast runs were: Barrow 6  Whitehaven 1 Ulverston 2
The Whitehaven turn was given to title of "express goods" and on its down run was limited to merchandise traffic only.  running via the original main line from Dalton Junction to Park South (thus avoiding Barrow,)  it reached Corkickle Sidings from Carnforth in three hours dead.  Only one stop, of five minutes for water at Millom, was made.
It will be noticed that there were no special trips for Millom laid on from Carnforth.  This was because the usual practice was to convey Millom traffic on Barrow trains as far as Lindal Ore Depot Sidings.  Here it was dropped off and worked on to Millom via the Barrow avoiding line by one of the intermediate workings.
In the up direction, goods arrivals at Carnforth numbered 12.  They were originated on the system as follows:
Barrow 5 Ulverston 4  Whitehaven 1  Millom 1  Kendal Branch 1
An unusual feature of the up time table was that no goods or mineral train arrived at Carnforth from the north before 1-0 p.m.
The up working from Whitehaven (Corkickle Sidings)  was again designated "express,"  but his time a fair amount of mineral traffic was included in its load (especially coke for the Millom furnaces from the Allerdale coke ovens, near Workington.)  Millom was once again its only stop, but for 35 minutes to attach and detach traffic, and to let the 11-35 a.m. express passenger get in front.
Mention has already been made of the coke traffic from Durham to the Furness area.  This was picked up from the North-Eastern Railway at Tebay and, since the Furness Railway had working powers to that point, the loads of coke were worked from there jointly by Furness and L.& N.W.R. engines and men.  To deal with the tonnage coming along in 1922, six trips in each direction were laid on.  One of these was "conditional."  Three were worked by each company.  those handled by the North-Western terminated at Lindal Ore Depot, and those by the Furness ran to Barrow.  Engines most generally used were Class G.1 0-8-0's by the L.& N.W. and MR. PETTIGREW'S latest 0-6-0's by the Furness.
On the Barrow-Whitehaven section, in addition to the through turn from Carnforth already described, there were two other fast goods trips to and from Barrow.  From Whitehaven to Millom there was a "road-side" goods and an "engine and van" run to Sellafield.  Here and iron ore load was picked up off the Joint Line and worked on to Millom.  In the down direction there were two fast and a road-side turn from Millom to Whitehaven.
By the 1920's the mineral traffic off the Joint Line had fallen off so severely that tone through train from Egremont to Millom and back and another from Barrow to Sellafield and back sufficed to deal with the loadings available.  The remaining intermediate workings consisted mainly of several trips between Millom and Ulverston (North Lonsdale Ironworks):  Barrow and North Lonsdale and Park Mineral Sidings and the same place.
The passenger and goods services on the Joint Lines are dealt with in Chapter XIII.
The severe gradients up to Lindal Sidings from both north and south put very severe restrictions on unassisted train loads.  Going north the rising gradient starts near Plumpton Junction and steepens from 1 in 186 for six chains to 1 in 94; 1 in 76 and further lengths varying from 1 in 79 to 1 in 107.  the full climb is nearly four miles long and there are two curves on 25 chains radius after nearly three miles of collar work.  coming south there is a steady climb from Askam with a maximum gradient of 1 in 94, followed by a "dip" through Park Sidings.  From Park South (or as it should be more correctly called, Thwaite Flat Junction), those trains routed by the original main line are faced with a stiff climb, maximum gradient 1 in 73, to Dalton Junction.  From there to Lindal there are stretches of 1 in 97 and 1 in 103 and on these portions there are four curves, of which one is 24 chains, one 26, and two of 25 chains radius.  For trains starting from Barrow, the climb is continuous from Roose, with a maximum of 1 in 63, just before Dalton Junction.  There are three curves of 25 chains on this section.  The unassisted loads were calculated on a wagon basis.  For example, a "Sharpie" could only tackle 14 loaded iron ore wagons and a brake van on its own from Plumpton Junction to Lindal Sidings.  It could take 17 wagons of coke, coal, pig iron or limestone, and 24 of merchandise.  These loadings also applied to passenger and small tank engines.  With MR. PETTIGREW'S larger 0-6-0 tender and 0-6-2 tank locomotives, the number of wagons was stepped up to 23, 26 and 38 respectively.  Restrictions between Barrow and Lindal and Askam and Lindal (via the direct line)  were the same.  It will be seen, therefore, that banking was needed for practically every goods train up both sides of the climb to Lindal.
For north-bound trains the banking engine was attached at Plumpton Junction.  Depending on the load, assistance was given to south-bound runs, via the direct line, either from Askam or Park South. The unassisted loads between the two last-named points was roughly double those which applied beyond Park Sidings.  From Barrow, the "pusher" was put on at Roose.  It was laid down that the maximum number of wagons on any train on the system was 60 (including brake van.)
As stated in the chapter dealing with the Furness locomotives, the latter were invariably kept in a spotless condition.  On the system as a whole there was a friendly atmosphere, and the staff were encouraged to make suggestions for improving the working of the trains.  Each goods guard had his own brake van, with his own name and depot painted in white on a small panel on the doors.  The station buildings, which were of a substantial and quite attractive character, were painted in a colour scheme of red and cream.
The earliest type of signals used on the Furness double track lines had slotted wooden posts with the arm pivoted in the centre.  The normal position of the arm was horizontal, with a red light showing at night.  For "all right" the arm was lowered to an angle of 70 degrees, and a white light exposed.  Distant signals had the usual "fish-tail" ends and were painted red and white as the stop variety.  They showed a red light for caution and were fitted with an acetylene lamp which gave a white flashing light in the "off" position.  Originally they were not locked with the home signals, this being done at a later date.
On single lines a modified form of the disc and cross-bar signal, as used on the G.W.R., was employed.  This consisted of a wooden disc 18 inches in diameter with a red face, fitted to a post 10 feet high.  When the red face was exposed to the driver it indicated "stop."  For "all right" the disc was turned through an angle of 90 degrees so that only the edge could be seen by the engine driver.  These signals were erected at all crossing loops ( one at each end)  and were operated from the foot of the post.
The first telephones were not installed in signal boxes, but in the station offices.  They were of the phonophore type and the circuits were super-imposed on the block wire.
The signals finally were mainly of two types.  The older ones had latticed girder posts and the signal lamp and spectacles were mounted much lower down than the arm itself, which was still pivoted in the centre of the post.  The later design was more akin to the North-Western pattern.  One unique feature was the method of raising and lowering the signal lamps when they required a fresh filling of lamp oil.  A chain ran from a little hand winch fitted on the side of the post; over a pulley wheel let into the top of the signal, and was then attached to the lamp itself.  The latter was clipped on to a sliding bar which ran the full length of one side of the post.  This arrangement obviated the fitting of a ladder.  Only in the latest signals erected by the Furness was the ladder substituted for this winch arrangement.
On all the single lines Tyer's electric tablet instruments were employed.  On the main line, one wire two position-block instruments were employed.  On the main line, one wire two position-block instruments were first used.  Later they were replaced by the three-position type.
The main line, owing to the curvature of the coast line, was handicapped (as it still is)  by a number of very sharp curves.  Some of these have already been mentioned.  The most severe one is a Par South (Thwaite Flat Junction) where the present main line via Barrow turns off the Dalton direct track.  The curve here has a radius of only 11 chains and there is a very severe speed restriction.  There is also one of 14 chains after leaving Barrow for the south, just beyond St. Lukes Junction.  Since the Furness Railway mainly followed the coast-line, the track nowhere reaches any great altitude.  The highest point is on the Coniston Branch at Torver (345 feet above sea-level).
Now we come to the fateful year 1922.  The Report of the Directors and Statement of Accounts for the year ending December 31st, 1922, was issued on February 3rd, 1923, and was stated to be for submission to:
"The 147th (being the Tenth Annual and Final) Ordinary General Meeting of the Company to be held at the Furness Abbey Hotel, on Tuesday, the 20th February, 1923, at 1-30 p.m."
The heading of the Report continued:
"Notice is hereby given that pursuant to the provisions of the North-Western, Midland and West Scottish Group Amalgamation Scheme, 1922, an Annual General Meeting will be held ...for the transaction of the business for which such Meeting is by the Scheme required to be held, including the payment out of the assets of the Company of such compensation as may be determined to the Directors of the Company who suffer loss by abolition of office."
The following comprised the final Board of Directors:
Frederic J. RAMSDEN (Chairman), Myles KENNEDY (Deputy Chairman), Col. The Rt. Hon. Lord Richard CAVENDISH, His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, LT. Col. J. Arthur JACKSON, Sir John RANDLES, G. Muir RITCHIE.
During 1922 the gross receipts from all sources (Railway, steamboats, docks, etc. ) was £ 973,465 and expenditure £ 839,280.  After the addition of £ 273,694 from the Railways Compensation Account (under the 1921 Railways Act) and £ 8,523 from rents, etc., there remained a net income of £ 273,694.
After paying interests, rentals and other fixed charges, the dividends on the Guaranteed and Preference Stock and the sum of £9,000 to the Contingency Fund, the balance available for the Ordinary Dividend was £ 52,840.  An interim payment of 1/2% had been made in August, and a Final dividend of 1 1/2% was proposed, making 2% for the last year of the Company's existence.
During 1922 the goods and mineral traffic carried totalled 3,103,477 tons.  this was of course much below the figures which had obtained during the War years, but was 600,000 tons better than 1921.  Goods and mineral receipts were £563,010.
Just over 3 1/2 million passengers were carried during the same period.  This number also showed an improvement on the year before, to the tune of about 75,000.  The receipts totalled £ 183,704.  There were about 1,500 season ticket holders using the Furness Railway, of which 90% were 3rd class.
The mileage of lines owned in 1922 (reduced to single track and sidings)  was 329 miles and 42 chains.  Jointly owned lines added another 54 miles and 60 chains.  Finally the little Cleator and Workington contributed another 46 miles and 6 chains under the heading of Lines worked by the company.  All this gave a grand total of 430 miles and 29 chains.  If sidings be ignored, the final figures, reduced to a single track only, were 193 miles 22 chains (owned) ; 35 miles 47 chains ( jointly owned) ; and 31 miles 57 chains (worked) ; total:  260 miles 46 chains.
In view of the vast amount of money the Furness Railway sunk in the development of the port of Barrow, the final figures of receipts and expenditure on the Docks are of interest.  In 1922 total revenue was £112,286 and expenditure £110,575.  Just over £1,700  was made.  The steamboats made double that amount of profit in the same period.  All accrued from the services on Windermere and Coniston Lakes.  After the War, it was decided not to renew the Barrow-Fleetwood summer service, as it was felt that under the changed conditions it would not pay.  Two of the boats used on this service had been requisitioned by the Admiralty on the outbreak of the War, but returned safely after 1918.  They were broken up later.
The number of locomotives owned by the Furness Railway, and the mileage run by the engines in the last year of independence, is given in Chapter XII.
Final coaching figures gave the company 269 passenger carriages; 24 luggage and parcels vans, 27 horse boxes; 12 carriage trucks and 2 postal sorting vans.  The chief items among the 7,365 goods and mineral stock, were 4,291 open goods wagons (the majority being between 8 and 12 tons) ; 1,880 iron ore wagons; 289 goods vans; 701 rail and timber trucks; 115 cattle trucks; and 87 goods brake vans.  A variety of service vehicles totalled 374.
It was the proud boast of the Furness Railway Company that no serious accident occurred on the system during its existence (other than the one on Leven Viaduct in 1903) and no Furness engine was ever involved in a collision with another.
In 1896 MR. MASON, who had been Locomotive Superintendent of the Furness Railway for nearly 50 years, retired.  He was succeeded by MR. W. F. PETTIGREW, who became Locomotive, Wagon and Carriage Superintendent.  MR. PETTIGREW had previously been with the London and South-Western and Great Eastern Railways.
During MR. MASON'S long reign at Barrow no locomotives had been designed by him; the Company preferred to order "standard" designs from MESSRS. SHARP, STEWART, of Manchester.  The latter firm had supplied all the F.R. locomotive power, apart from the "Bury" designs of the very early days which were built by MESSRS. CURTIS & KENNEDY and MESSRS. FAIRBAIRN'S.  Soon after he took office, MR. PETTIGREW decided that the increasingly heavy traffic on the "joint Lines" of the Cleator District called for engines specially designed to deal with the heavy gradients and sharp curves of that sector.  The result was the appearance in 1898 of three powerful 0-6-2 tanks, numbered 112 to 114.  This was the first F. R. locomotive type designed specifically for the Cleator Lines.
Weighing 55 tons in working order, the new class had cylinders 18x26 ins. and a working pressure of 150 lbs.  Coupled wheels had a diameter of 4 ft. 8 ins., and the wheel base was 20 ft. 8 ins.  Heating surface was 1,134 sq. ft., and boiler 10 ft. 6 ins. long with a diameter of 4 ft. 4 ins.  The side tanks held 1,400 gallons of water and the coal bunkers 30 cwt. of coal.
Having met the immediate needs of the northern end of the system, MR. PETTIGREW turned his attention to the main line.  Once again it was Lindal Bank, with its gradients up to 1 in 63 and severe curves, which was the major problem.  The little 0-6-0 "Sharpies" were hardly able to cope with the still mounting loads which they were required to haul over this hard road.
To deal with this situation, MR. PETTIGREW evolved a series of new 0-6-0 tender engines, of which twelve were ordered in 1898.  They were put into traffic in the following year.  Six were supplied by MESSRS.  SHARP, STEWART and six by MESSRS. NASMYTH, WILSON & CO., of Patricroft, Manchester.  they were allocated numbers 7 to 18, taking those formerly held by eight FAIRBAIRN shunting tanks, two "Sharpies" and two 2-4-0 tender engines.  The latter were all scrapped, except the two 2-4-0's which were renumbered 3 and 4.
MR. PETTIGREW was a great believer in standardisation and made the new 0-6-0's duplicates as far as possible of the new 0-6-2 "Cleator" tanks, while their tenders were interchangeable with those of the 1896 class 4-4-0's.
With tenders carrying 2,500 gallons of water, the twelve new goods engines weighed 66 tons 8 cwts.  Some of them were fitted with Macallans Variable Blast Pipe and all had both automatic and steam brakes, making them suitable for working heavy excursion trains.
While the new engines were giving a good account of themselves on heavy mineral trains, MR. PETTIGREW gave a number of the old 16 in "Sharpies" a new lease of life by fitting them with new and larger steel boilers.  The latter, which had flush tops and Ramsbottom, instead of Salter safety valves, gave the engines a much larger heating surface and grate area.  As re-built, these "Sharpies"  gave a good account of themselves and worked secondary goods trains all over the system.
In 1900 an addition was made to the passenger stud.  Two new 4-4-0's were delivered from the North British Locomotive Company ( formerly SHARP, STEWART & Co.)  They differed from the 1896 class in having the cylinders increased from 16 to 18 inches, with 26 ins. stroke.  They were numbered 126 and 127.  Two more, numbered 28 and 129, were put into traffic in 1901.  They were also supplied by the N.B. Loco. Co.  All four engines had 6 ft. dia. coupled wheels and 160 lbs. working pressure.  The grate area of these new engines was 18 sq. ft. and the total heating surface 1,270 sq. ft.  The total weight, with 3,000 gallon tenders, was 75 tons 10 cwt.  They were handsome and efficient locomotives and were divided between the two extremities of the system; 126 and 128 usually being shedded at Carnforth and the other two at Whitehaven.  Originally it had been intended to have six engines in this class, but owing to the urgency of the order, two of the six had to be replicas of the 1896 class; these were Nos. 124 and 125.
A further batch of 0-6-2 radial tanks were put into service in 1904.  Except for having the driving wheels increased in diameter to 5 ft.1 ins. they were duplicates of the "Cleator" class.  Intended for banking duties, their bigger coupled wheels made them suitable for passenger work also.  There were twelve engines in this class, of which half were supplied by the N.B. Loco. Co. and half by NASMYTH, WILSON & Co.  They were numbered 97 to 108, the ex W. C. & E. locomotives carrying these numbers going on the Duplicate List. A further three, Nos. 109 to 111, came from the N. B. Loco. Co. in 1907.
In 1907 four "Mixed Traffic" 0-6-2 tanks and came from the N. B. Loco. Co.  They were employed on fast goods and stopping passenger trains and were shared between Whitehaven and Carnforth sheds.  Numbered 3 to 6, they took over the numbers of two 2-4-0's which were scrapped.
Now that the last of the little FAIRBAIRN, and SHARP, STEWART 0-4-0 shunting tanks had gone to the scrap heap, a new type of shunting locomotive was required.  MR. PETTIGREW produced the needful in 1910 when six smart little 0-6-0 side tanks were put to work.  They had cylinders 17 1/2 x 24 ins., wheels 4 ft. 7 1/2 ins. dia., and 160 lbs. working pressure.  They were numbered 19 to 24 and re-numbered 55 to 60 in 1918.  They were the first engines supplied to the Furness by the Vulcan Foundry, Newton-le-Willows.  their main duties were shunting at Barrow Docks and working the lighter branch trains in the West Cumberland area.  In the F. R. list these handy little engines took the place of several 0-4-0 tanks and a couple of "Sharpies."
The 0-6-0 shunting tank class received two additions in 1915 from KITSON'S, of Leeds ( Nos. 52 and 53,) and a further couple in 1916 from the Vulcan Foundry (Nos. 54 and 55.)  They replaced two "Neddies" and two "Sharpies."
Shortly before the 1914-1918 War, increasing traffic on the Cleator Line called for additions to the "Cleator Class" 0-6-2 tanks.  Fitted with a larger type boiler, KITSON'S delivered two in 1912 and two more in 1914.  They were numbered 92 to 95.  Apart from having larger boilers and steam pressure being raised to 170 lbs., these additional engines were dimensionally the same as those supplied in 1899.
In 1913 four more 0-6-0 mineral engines were supplied by the N. B. Loco. Co.  Except for the raising of the steam pressure to 170 lbs., they were replicas of the 1899 class.  All had the funnel placed very far forward on the smoke-box, due it is believed to experimental super-heaters being fitted and afterwards removed.  These new 0-6-0's were numbered 1, 2, 25 and 26.  they were usually shedded at Carnforth and Barrow.
For working the Coniston, Lakeside and Kendal branches it was decided in 1914 to order a batch of 4-4-2 passenger tank engines.  KITSON & Co. supplied Nos. 38 and 39 in 1915 and the VULCAN Foundry 40 to 43 in 1916.  these were graceful machines with boilers and cylinders of the same dimensions as the 1910 0-6-0 tanks.  They had 5 ft. 8 ins. coupled wheels, 1,070 sq. ft. of heating surface, and 160 lbs. pressure.
During the 1914-1918 War the resources of the Furness Railway were taxed to the utmost.  Not only was there a very heavy munitions traffic from Barrow, but a considerable amount of through traffic between Scotland and England was worked round by the Cumbrian Coastal route to relieve congestion over the L. & N.W., especially at week-ends.  In spite of this, only two more new engines appeared before 1918.  They were two 0-6-0 goods engines, similar to the rest of the goods class, but with the larger boiler.  They were numbered 27 and 28, and came from the N. B. Loco Co. No 28 replaced and old "Sharpie," which had been rebuilt from a 0-4-0, and now went on the Duplicate List as 28A and ended her days at Whitehaven Shed, complete with brass "trumpet" safety valve and polished brass band round the fire-box casing.
A final addition to the 4-4-0 engines was made the year in which the Great War broke out.  This was the "130" class of four engines, the first two of which appeared in traffic in 1913, and the second pair in 1914.  All came from the North British Locomotive Company and had 6 ft. 6 in. driving wheels, 1,270 sq. ft. heating surface, and 170 lbs. pressure.  They were split up between Barrow and Carnforth.
In 1918 the two large-boilered 0-6-0's, Nos. 27 and 28, received eight sisters, four from KITSON'S and four from the N. B. Loco. Co.  They were numbered 19 to 24 and 29 and 30.  The original Nos. 19 to 24 (the 0-6-0 shunting tanks) then became 52 to 55.  the original 29 and 30 both went on the duplicate List.
In 1920 the last batch of 0-6-0's appeared and were numbered 31 to 35.  They took the numbers of five of the 1896 class of 4-4-0's which were in turn re-numbered 44 to 47.  The other number was taken from a scrapped 16 in. 0-6-0.  The two remaining 2-4-0 passenger engines, Nos. 44 and 45, now went on the Duplicate List.  These last 0-6-0 mineral engines came from the North British Locomotive Co.
By the end of 1920 the bulk of the goods and mineral traffic was being handled by the 15 large-boilered 0-6-0's, supplemented by the 1899 and 191 examples of the class.  The dwindling band of "Sharpies" were now relegated to lighter duties and work on the Cleator and Workington Railway.  The most arduous passenger duties were shared by the "130" Class 4-4-0's and those built in 1900 (Nos. 126 to 129.  the 1896 Class were  usually confined to the slower passenger turns.
In 1920 MR. D. L. RUTHERFORD succeeded MR. PETTIGREW as Locomotive Superintendent and proceeded to design the most spectacular locomotive class yet seen on the Furness Railway, and many other British railways as well.  these were a series of five giant 4-6-4 "Baltic" tank engines.  They were remarkable as being the only inside cylindered "Baltic" tanks built in Britain and also that they employed saturated steam.  KITSON'S, of Leeds, were the builders.  The following are the main dimensions of these hefty machines:-
Cylinders, 19 1/2 x 26 ins.; coupled wheels, 5 ft. 8 ins. dia.; leading and trailing bogies, 3 ft. 2 ins.; heating surface, 2,003 sq. ft.; grate area, 26 sq. ft.; working pressure, 170 lbs.  The heating surface of the fire-box was 153 sq.ft. and the boiler contained 230 tubes, 2 ins. in diameter.  The total water capacity was 2,800 gallons, of which 1,475 gallons were carried on the side tanks and the balance in the coal bunker: the latter also carried four tons of coal.
The staff promptly nicknamed the new engines "Jumbos."  This was an apt name as the new engines stood 13 1/2 feet from rails to chimney top and were 49 ft. 1 1/2 ins. over buffers in length.  The boiler barrel was 15 feet long.  Tractive effort, at 85% boiler pressure, was 21,006 lbs.  In working order the total weight was 92 tons 15 cwt., of which 55 tons 8 cwts. was available for adhesion.
All the "Jumbos" were fitted with GRESHAM & CRAVEN No. 10 injectors, GRESHAM'S Dreadnought vacuum ejectors, LAMBERT'S water sanding gear, Detroit sight feed lubricators for both cylinders and steam chest, Ross "pop: safety valves and apparatus for heating the coaches with live steam.
After going through their trails with great success, during which they negotiated curves of five chains radius with ease, the new engines settled down to work most of the fast turns between Carnforth and Whitehaven.  They were numbered 115 to 119; taking these from five "Sharpies: which were re-numbered 70 to 74.  Barrow and Carnforth sheds stabled the "Jumbos" which were very popular with their crews.  On the rare occasions that one of them had to spend a night at Whitehaven, she had to be parked outside the shed: the height of a "Jumbos" prevented entry there.  One of these engines invariably worked the up and down mail and also the up morning fast turn from Whitehaven to Carnforth.  Their great weight prevented their use over the Cleator Joint Lines.
The 4-6-4 tanks were the Furness Railway's "swan son" in the way of locomotives.  No more engines were designed or built before the 1923 grouping, and thus we come to the end of the locomotive history of the Furness Railway.
Before concluding this chapter, we might see how and where the various classes of engine were employed in 1922 - the year before the end.  The locomotive stock was then made up as follows:
4-4-0  Tender Engines    20    0-6-2 Tank Engines    23
2-4-0                                 1    0-6-0                           16
0-6-0                               62    4-4-2                             6
4-6-4  Tank Engines         5    0-4-0                             1
Total  136
Starting with the oldest of the 4-4-0 tender engines, "The Seagulls" were usually at Barrow (No. 120-123) and worked slow turns from there.  The 1900 Class 4-4-0's were divided equally between Whitehaven and Carnforth sheds and shared the through slow and semi-fast turns with the "130" Class 4-4-0's which were divided between Barrow and Carnforth.  Their duties were supplemented by the 1896 class of which Carnforth usually had Nos. 125, 46 and 47;  Whitehaven 124, 36 and 37; and Barrow the rest.  The "Baltic" 4-6-4 tanks usually handled the down morning mail; the 10-5 a.m. and 4-30 p.m. into Whitehaven; returning south with the 10-5 a.m.; 11-35 a.m. "Express" and the 7-10 p.m. up mail.  On the three branch lines the passenger traffic was dealt with by the 4-4-2 tanks, and one of the latter was usually shedded at Moor Row as well.  The passenger trains on the Cleator Lines which the Furness worked, and those on the Cleator and Workington Railway, were in charge of several of the smart little 0-6-0 tanks, plus the two remaining 2-4-2's.
Turning to the goods stock, the earlier examples of MR. PETTIGREW'S 0-6-0 mineral class were largely employed on the shorter distance iron ore workings and were mostly stabled at Barrow and Carnforth.  One of this class, No. 14, was invariably entrusted with the one regular "express" goods turn on the system.  This was the train leaving Carnforth at 6-40 a.m. and reaching Corkickle Sidings in three hours dead, via the Barrow Avoiding Line, with one stop of five minutes for water at Millom.  Whitehaven shed usually had one example of the 1898 class, generally No. 7 or 8.
The twenty-three 0-6-2 tanks were divided between the Cleator district and banking duties up both sides of Lindal bank.  Those built specially for the Cleator Lines in 1899 and 1912 generally remained there.
MR. PETTIGREW'S later versions of the 0-6-0 mineral class worked all the heavier turns to and from Barrow and Carnforth.  They also did the Furness share of the Tebay coke traffic.  Carnforth and Whitehaven sheds shared the four "mixed traffic" 0-6-0's.  A typical working for one of these engines was a stopping passenger run from Whitehaven to Barrow; a workmen's train back to Millom, and a fast goods from the latter back to Corkickle Sidings.
Twenty-seven "Sharpies" were still at work in 1920.  They were Nos. 49 and 50, 61 to 67, 75 to 81, and 84 to 90, also 25A, 28A and 29A.  Nearly all had been re-boilered and a number had boilers similar to either the 1898 or 1913 class 0-6-0's.  they were scattered over the system, working stopping goods and shunting turns.  The Cleator & Workington line was another of their spheres of action where they supplemented the work of the remaining band of ex-W.C. & E. tanks, all of which were on the Duplicate List.
It was unusual to see a Furness locomotive in anything but a spotless condition-even when painting might be somewhat overdue.  The Indian red livery was always pleasing to the eye.  Down to 1896 the engine number was carried on a small oval brass plate, fitted about half-way along the boiler side.  The number was enclosed between the words "Furness" and "Railway,"  all in raised brass letters and figures.  After 1896 the plates were moved to the more usual position on the cab sides.  About this period the old type of fluted top chimney which was fitted to all the Sharp, Stewart engines was replaced by the built-up pattern.  The latter was fitted to all the older engines as they went through the shops for re-boilering.
It was not until MR. PETTIGREW'S regime that the letters "F.R."appeared on the tender sides, and then this was confined largely to those locomotives built after 1895.  In addition, the 4-4-0 tender engines (other than the "Seagulls") had the crest of the company painted on the splasher over the front driving wheel.  When the 4-6-4 "Baltic" tanks came out in 1920, the crest appeared on the tank sides between the lettering.
For the considerable amount of "tender first" running which was done on the West Cumberland Joint Lines, a number of the "Sharpies" had special weather boards fitted to their tenders.  There was a turn-table at Moor Row shed, but owing to ground subsidences in the area, caused by the extensive iron ore mine workings, it became unsafe to use.
The locomotive, carriage and wagon shops were at Barrow, and in their final form covered 30 acres.  The original locomotive fitting shop eventually became the machine shop and turnery.  The boiler shops were equipped with an overhead crane to lift 15 tons.  The erecting shop consisted of three bays, 50 feet span and 160 yards long.  Originally it had a very low roof and engine wheels had to be taken off or put on by running the locomotives over dropping pits.  Later the roof was raised and an electric overhead crane installed.  The Barrow running shed was 310 feet long and 150 feet wide and housed 60 engines.  In the carriage and wagon section, the wagon shop was 300 feet long and 160 feet wide.  The carriage paint shop, was 210 feet long and 8 feet wide and could hold 20 coaches.  There was also a wagon repair shop and timber drying shed.  The stock shed had six roads and was 43 feet long.
Close to Barrow Central station there were the carriage storage sheds.  They were four in number, the largest being 300 feet long and 90 feet wide.  A total of 152 coaches could be accommodated.
Shortly before the 1914-1918 War, a number of bogie iron ore wagons were constructed.  They were of steel and had a capacity of 45 tons, with a tare weight of only 12 tons 15 cwt.  However the contraction in the ore traffic made them uneconomic.  The 20 ton steel hopper wagons put in traffic about the same time were a better proposition and many of them were built.  They replaced the old wooden tip wagons which had been in use for many years between the mines and Barrow.  Whereas it took six men about 25 minutes to unload one of the old type of truck, the new hoppers could be emptied by two min in half-a-minute.
Apart from the main shops at Barrow, small-scale repairs could be carried out at Moor Row and Carnforth sheds.  The remaining motive power depots were at Whitehaven, Coniston and Lakeside (Windermere.)  The two last-named were merely small affairs to house the branch engines.  The sheds at Workington (Central) and Siddick Junction on the Cleator & Workington Railway were also built to Furness standards, since the latter supplied the bulk of the locomotive power.
As this book has been compiled as a history of the Furness Railway, it is not proposed to go beyond 1922 and deal in any detail with the happenings over the system after it was absorbed into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.  The engines were re-numbered as shown.
Furness Number                                               Type                               LMS Number                 Power Class
44A                                                                   2-4-0                                10002                            1
120-129, 36, 37, 44-47                                        4-4-0                                10131-46                        1
130-133                                                             4-4-0                                10185-8                          2
71A, 72A                                                           2-4-2T                              10619-20                        0
38-43                                                                 4-4-2T                             11080-5                          1
115-119                                                             4-6-4T                              11100-4                          3
97A                                                                   0-4-0T                              11358                            0
108A, 109A                                                        0-6-0T                              11547-8                         1
68,69                                                                 0-6-0T                              11549-50                       1
82,83                                                                 0-6-0T                              11551-2                         1
55-60                                                                 0-6-0T                              11553-58                       1
51-54                                                                 0-6-0T                              11559-62                       1
122-114                                                              0-6-2T                              11622-4                         2
98-11                                                                 0-6-2T                               11625-40                       2
94-95                                                                 0-6-2T                               11641-2                         3
92-93                                                                 0-6-2T                               11643-4                         3
62,80,85-7,75,77,71                                             0-6-0-T                              12000-14                       0
65,63,79,88-90,71,72-4                                         0-6-0                                12065-76                       1
49,50,7-18,3-6                                                     0-6-0                                 12468-83                       2
1,2,19-35                                                            0-6-0                                  12494-512                     3
Although the locomotives on the duplicate list received L.M.S. numbers it is doubtful whether any ran with them, as they were either withdrawn or just due for permanent retirement at the time of the Grouping.  naturally the "Sharpies" were the first to go, and quickly.  The bulk of the remainder continued to function in their own territory until 1929-1930 when there was another spate of scrapping.  To-day (1946) there only remain six of the 0-6-0's (12494, 12499, 12501, and 12508-10 inclusive,) and one solitary 0-6-2 tank (11628.)  They are all divided between Moor Row and Workington (L.N.W.) shed.  All are classified "3F" in the L.M. & S. Powered classification Scheme.  One or two of them have been re-built with Lancashire & Yorkshire type boilers with Belpaire fire-box.  right from the start of the Grouping practically every Furness engine rapidly relapsed into a filthy external condition and remained so until scrapped.
To complete our survey of the locomotive power of the line, here are some of the final figures concerning the work done by the gallant band of "Red Indians" in their last year of independence.
In 1922 the total number of train miles (including empty trains) run was 1,159,256 Passenger workings accounted for 721,468 miles and goods 437,788.  With shunting and banking mileage added, the total for the year was 1,713,393.  When the score of the Company's running over the Joint Lines was added, the final total was not far short of 2,000,000 miles.  Turning to engine miles pure and simple, the figure for all types of running was 1,912,80 over the company's lines and with the mileage over the Joint Lines and over those of other railways, the final figure was 2,157,514 miles.
The Joint lines.
As related in Chapter VI. the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway became the joint property of the Furness and London & North-Western Railways in 1879.  In this chapter we shall see how the joint working was carried out and the way it which the duties were shared between the two companies.
The Joint Lines comprised the Railway from Whitehaven to Marron Junction; Moor Row to Sellafield; and the following mineral branches; Bigrigg and Pallaflat; Crossfield; Beckermet Mines and Gilgarron.
At Corkickle, the double track of the Joint Line branches off at the end of the platform and runs parallel to the single track of the Furness main line to a point some distance beyond Mirehouse Junction signal-box.  There is a cross-over between the two lines at the latter point.  Thereafter the joint track turns eastwards and climbs Corkickle bank with its maximum gradient of 1 in 52, to Moor Row Junction.  From there the double track continues to Rowrah, 9 miles and 36 chains from Whitehaven.  Thence to Marron Junction on the Workington-Cockermouth Section of the L.N.W.R., the line is single.  The distance from Rowrah to Marron Junction is 8 miles and 33 chains.
Returning to Moor Row, the line to Sellafield, via Egremont, branches off there.  It is single to Woodend, the next station.  From Woodend the track becomes double as far as Egremont from whence it is single again to Sellafield.  Gradients over the whole system are severe.  On the Rowrah line the gradient beyond Frizington steepens from 1 in 100 to 1 to 60 and later to a maximum of 1 in 44.  Beyond Rowrah there is maximum falling gradient of 1 in 55 towards Lamplugh.  On the Sellafield line there are two stretches of 1 in 80, both rising towards Moor Row.
After the absorption of the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway, most of the stations were re-built as time went on, either partially or entirely.  Those of the Moor Row, Sellafield line followed the Furness pattern, but on the Rowrah and Marron Junction Branch, L.N.W.R. standards were followed.  Over the whole section the signal boxes and signals were finally North-Western type and on the single track lines the L.N.W. electric train staff was in use.  The same company's single wire semaphone absolute block instruments were employed.
Broadly speaking, the North-Western Company worked the major portion of the passenger trains and supplied all the coaching stock.  The latter were almost entirely of their four or six-wheeled variety.  Beyond Rowrah the L.N.W.R. handled all traffic.  This was not heavy, usually consisting of three passenger trains each way between Whitehaven and Marron Junction, with an additional turn in either direction on Thursday for Whitehaven Market; and a couple of goods turns up and down.  the platform at Marron Junction was later taken out, and all these passenger turns ran to and from Workington. Where a connection was shown from Whitehaven to both the Sellafield and Rowrah lines, the train usually consisted of two portions to Moor Row, where it was split up.
Those passenger turns worked by the Furness were usually a couple of trips in each direction as far as Rowrah and to Sellafield.  The same company also worked a series of iron ore miner's specials between the Beckermet Mines and Yeathouse, near Frizington.  Some old Furness six-wheeled coaches were sometimes used for this purpose.
Turning to goods and mineral trains, the division of work was broadly as follows:
On the Moor Row-Marron Junction section, the Furness worked all mineral turns which did not proceed beyond Rowrah.  On the Egremont-Sellafield a good deal of iron ore and limestone traffic was worked from the mines and quarries served by the Bigrigg and Beckermet mines mineral branches to the various blast furnace plants in the Workington area.  This traffic was handled by the L. & N.W.R.  There was also a pretty considerable flow of iron ore from mines near Egremont to the furnaces at Millom, Barrow and Ulverston.  This was dealt with by Furness engines.
Moore Row shed was the motive power depot which supplied all Furness locomotive power for the Joint Line, and for some of the Cleator and Workington Railway trips as well.  As stated elsewhere, all the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont engines taken over and retained by the Furness Company continued to work in the area.  They were supplemented by MR. PETTIGREW'S "Cleator Class" 0-6-2 tanks, a few of his earlier 0-6-0 mineral engines and a rather motley bunch of re-built and un-rebuilt 0-6-0 "Sharpies."  Any of the above engines were also used for work on the C. & W. line.  The passenger turns were first handled by the little 2-4-2 tanks, re-built from the 2-4-0 tender engines, and when these game little chaps were worn out, MR. PETTIGREW'S neat and efficient 0-6-0 shunting tanks replace them.  
All the North-Western's share of the work was done by five types of locomotives; the only L.N.W.R. engines that have ever run in the Cleator district.  All were of Webb design.  As far as Rowrah and Sellafield, either 2-4-2 tanks or 0-6-2 "coal tanks" handled passenger turns.  For the longer run through to Workington via "Marron" Junction, 2-4-0 "Jumbo's" were employed.   Among the latter in use just before the grouping were "Marquis Druro," "Skiddaw," "Sir Hardman Earle," and "Merrie Carlisle."
Webb 4 ft. 3 in. coal, and "Cauliflower" 0-6-0's handled all goods turns, supplemented by the 0-6-2 coal tanks.
As might be expected the volume of mineral traffic fluctuated considerably, especially with the series of slumps in the iron and steel trades between 1880 and 1900.  Given normal trade conditions, the iron ore and limestone tonnage moved over the Cleator lines was very heavy, anything up to half-a dozen booked runs from Egremont to Millom and back being a regular rule.  The traffic handled by the L.N.W. to Workington was on a similar scale.  To this must be added the short-distance ore traffic from mines in the Frizington area to the Whitehaven Haematite Iron Company's furnaces at Cleator Moor.  By 1922, however, the post-war depression period was setting in and a number of mines in the area were closing or being worked out; thus the mineral traffic was considerably reduced.
Generally speaking the passenger service to Rowrah and to Sellafield gave an average of five to seven trains each way on weekdays only.  Beyond Rowrah, as already stated, there were three trains in each direction.  There were no Sunday trains on the Joint Lines.
With so many severe gradients, it is not surprising that there was a lot of banking on the system.  There were no less than four sections between Whitehaven and Rowrah on which banking was authorised; all but one being in the up direction.  There was also regular banking of heavy goods trains from Sellafield to Beckermet and again from Egremont to Woodend.  The worst climbs were up Corkickle bank, over 1 1/2 miles long, where a Webb 0-6-0 coal engine or Furness "Sharpie" was limited to 187 tons without assistance, and from Frizington to Winder, where this figure fell to 150 tons for the same class of locomotive.  For a standard 0-6-0 Furness mineral engine or a L.N.W. "Cauliflower" the figures were 220 and 175 tons respectively.  All loads were of course doubled when assistance was provided at the rear.
In the early part of the present century the London & North-Western Company built a number of 20 ton straight-sided steel hopper iron ore wagons, which were designed specially for the West Cumberland ore traffic.  The story goes that some time after they were put in service, one of these wagons had to be dispatched to Euston to be duly inspected by an admiring directorate.
The whole of the former Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway abounds in sharp curves, some of them beyond Rowrah being as sharp as 16 chains radius.
The mineral branches do not cal for any special comment.  On account of the running of workmen's passenger trains over the Beckermet mines branch, which originally belonged to the Workington Iron and Steel Company, the electric train staff system was put into operation between Beckermet Mines Junction and Beckermet No. 1 Mine shortly before the 1923 grouping.  In 1917 a considerable portion of the Gilgarron branch was closed.  Built originally to bring iron ore from the mines in the Lamplugh and Frizington area down to the blast furnaces at Distington, the branch joined the Cleator & Workington Railway at Distington Station and then immediately branched off again beyond.  From this point it proceeded down the valley to join the Whitehaven-Workington line of the L.N.W.R. at Parton.  Before reaching Parton a short spur ran up to the Lowca colliery and coke oven plant.  The Gilgarron branch left the Rowrah-Marron Junction line at Ullock Junction and was 7 miles 32 chains long.  It also served Wythemoor colliery, between Ullock Junction and Distington.
The working out of Wythemoore colliery was one reason for the closing of the section between Ullock Junction and Distington Ironworks.  The latter were no worse off, as iron ore could still reach them just as conveniently from the same area via the Cleator & Workington mineral branch for Rowrah, via Arlecdon and Oatlands.  Originally the sector of the line from Distington to Parton was used for pig iron traffic from Distington to Whitehaven Dock for shipment, but by the end of the 1914-1918 War this line of business had practically ceased and the only regular booked turns on the branch were from Parton up to the spur tapping Lowca colliery and by-product plant.  There were also a number of collier's trains which technically used the line, since they ran from Whitehaven to a special "halt" platform which was about 100 yards up the branch off the main line.  This meagre traffic was worked by the L.N.W.R.  It is believed that some Furness turns were worked over the northern section of the Gilgarron branch in its earlier days.
Before closing this chapter on the Joint Railways operated by the Furness Company, some mention must be made of the Furness-Midland Joint Line from Carnforth to Wennington Junction.  This was opened in 1867 and, as stated in Chapter V, was 9 miles and 50 chains long.  Its original purpose was to give the Midland Railway access to the sea at Piel, and later Barrow.  Although the stations on the branch were built on the Furness pattern, the company never ran anything more than a ballast train over it.  They were responsible for the maintenance of the track, but after that they left matters to the Midland who ran all the trains and had their own engine shed at Carnforth.  The signal boxes and signals were all of Midland pattern.  The "Little North-Western," as it was originally called, made an end-on junction with the Furness, via what was known as "the Furness and Midland curve."  This enabled the Barrow boat trains and through goods turns to avoid running into Carnforth station and having to reverse.  There was also a line running into Carnforth station where it terminated in a bay platform alongside the Furness one.
In the later part of the 1`9th century, before the Midland Company developed their own port at Heysham, and their co-operation with the Furness Railway was at tits height, as many as a dozen passenger trains were run in each direction between Wennington and Carnforth.  Later this number was halved.
Throughout its existence, the Furness and Midland Joint Railway has been a useful route for mineral and goods Traffic between the industrial areas of Yorkshire and Furness.  There are a number of short sharp gradients around the 1 in 100 mark, the steepest bit being 38 chains of 1 in 95 between Carnforth and Borwick.  Melling tunnel is 1,230 yards long.  The intermediate stations, from Carnforth to Wennington, are Borwick, Arkholme and Melling.
No history of the Furness Railway would be complete without reference to the little company on West Cumberland for which the Furness Railway supplied most of the locomotive power, all the passenger services and a large proportion of the goods workings as well.  This was the Cleator & Workington Railway.
The circumstances leading up to the inauguration of the C. & W. are interesting.  It will be recalled that during the early 1870's the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway advanced their carrying charges.  The L. & N. W. R. did the same, and the Furness followed suit.  Not unnaturally the local traders, particularly the ironmasters, were up in arms..  Probably the railways expected this, but thought they needn't worry since they had a monopoly of the local rail facilities anyway.  However they underestimated the spirit of the West Cumberland business men, and also the extreme enmity with which the London & North-Western Company had come to be regarded in the district.  Euston of course made a much deeper penetration into the industrial area of Cumberland when the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway had responded so quickly to its overtures in 1878, although the spoils were finally shared with the Furness Railway when the joint control of the W. C. & E. R. was finally settled in 1879.
The leading lights in the revolt against "the tyranny of Euston" were the Earls of Lonsdale and Leconfield and MR. H. F. CURWEN of Workington.  These three gentlemen whipped up public opinion and got willing support for a scheme to build their own railway from Cleator Moor to Workington and on to Maryport.  This was in 1874.  A Bill of this purpose was presented to Parliament the following year and came before the Select Committee on March 16th, 1875.  About this time, the following commentary on the sins of the North-Western Company in West Cumberland appeared in the local press:
"The history of the L. N. W. R. in the district proves how extremely undesirable it is that the public should be placed at the mercy of a body of men whose only aim appears to be to get as much as they can and give as little as possible in return.  No sooner did the company get possession of the Whitehaven Junction and the Cockermouth and Workington Railways than the rates for season tickets were "revised," which at Euston usually means "increased."  In a short time there was another revision of season tickets rate.  The North-Eastern Railway had a driver's strike for a pay increase: there was none on the L. & N. W. R. but the N.E.R. strike was taken as a pretext for a rate increases on return tickets.
"In 1872, when the iron and coal trades were at their peak, carrying rates were nearly doubled.  Now trade is depressed, but the high rates remain.  As for the traveling public, they have been humbugged to all intents and purposes, and rickety carriages, condemned for the main line, are considered good enough for West Cumberland.
"Unpunctuality, defective management, high fares, exorbitant rates for traffic, scarcity  of rolling stock and 2nd class passengers treated as so much rubbish-these are the leading features of L. & N. W. R. policy in West Cumberland.  But the North-Western is not the only sinner, in respect of excessive rates.  Both the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont and the Furness Railways are as deep in the mud as in the mire.  The West Cumberland Blast Furnaces have to pay £ 9,000 more than a similar company in South Wales for hauling the same traffic over the same distance."
The writer of this pungent commentary went on to refer to the proposed new railway and said: -
"Of course the new line will be opposed tooth and nail, but Parliament will judge the Bill on its merits."
This is precisely what Parliament did do, and in spite of a very lengthy hearing, during which the representatives of both the L. & N. W. and Furness Railways put up a hard fight against their proposed new rival in the Cleator District, the Bill was approved.
On October 8th, 1875, a meeting of protest against the North-Western rates was held at Workington and it was announced that the route to be followed by the C. & W. would be from Cleator Moor, via Keekle and Weddicar to Moss Bay and Workington, and thence to Siddick and Maryport.
The company was incorporated in June, 1876, and the construction of the line by Messrs. WARD, the contractors, was commenced from Cleator Moor to Workington, with branches to Moss Bay and Harrington Ironworks.
By an Act, dated June 28th, 1877, the Furness Railway Company was empowered to work the Cleator & Workington line and should the latter company at any time decide to transfer ownership to any other concern, the Furness were entitled to have the option over all other parties.  By a further Act, dated July 21st, 1879, the Furness were empowered to buy shares in the C. & W. 
A branch from Distington to Rowrah, 6 1/2 miles long, was authorised in July, 1878, and a short line into Distington Ironworks was made three years later.  Powers were also obtained in 1883 to extend from Workington to Brayton (on the Maryport and Carlisle Line,) a distance of 15 3/4 miles, but this line was only constructed as far as Linefoot Junction on the Bullgill-Brigham branch of the M. & C. R.  In 1886 the powers to extend to Brayton were abandoned, connection with the main line to Carlisle being made at Siddick Junction (the first station north of Workington) instead.  Eventually, the section of the Northern Extension to Linefoot was abandoned beyond Buckhill Colliery, a distance of two miles.
In its final form the Cleator & Workington Railway consisted of the main line from Cleator Moor Junction to Siddick Junction (11 1/2 miles); and the Harrington mineral branch (2 3/4 miles.)  There were also three other short mineral lines:  The Moss Bay and Derwent Ironworks branches, just over a mile long apiece and a portion ( 1 1/2 miles) of the 3 1/22 mile long Lowca mineral branch from Harrington Junction to Rosehill Junction.  
From the latter point to Lowca Colliery and By-product Plant the track was the property of the Workington Iron and Steel Company ( later a branch of the United Steel Company.)  All the branches mentioned were single track and were worked by electric tablet, except those to the Moss Bay and Derwent Ironworks, which were operated by train staff and ticket.
Since it ran through a hilly part of West Cumberland, the gradients on the C. & W. were numberous and severe. Starting from Cleator Moor Junction, where the main line diverged from the Joint Line from Moor Row to Rowrah, there is a short stretch of 1 in 284, followed by nearly one mile of 1 in 72 and a further 1 1/2 miles of 1 in 70 to Moresby Parks.
After a short portion of the level, the track falls steeply, with several severe curves, down to Distington, just over 3 miles from Moresby Parks.  The ruling gradient is again 1 in 70, with curves of 22 chains radius.  The same gradient persists right down to Workington (Central,)  futher 3 miles.  The intermediate stations between Moor Row Junction were Cleator Moor (C. & W.); Moresby Parks, Distington, and Harrington.  There was also a :halt" platform at Keekle, between Cleator Moor and Moresby Parks, for the benefit of miners from that village who worked at Moresby Colliery.
On the Northern Extension there is a practically continuous climb at 1 in 70 from Calva Junction for over 2 miles, broken only by a short lenght of 1 in 150 just before Seaton.  The latter was the only passenger station on the line, apart from Great Broughton, on the abandoned section between Buckhill Colliery and Linefoot.
The severe gradients on the C. & W. reached their climax on the Distington-Rawrah branch, which was constructed mainly to link up at Rowrah with a little mineral railway which ran up into the hills close to the northern approaches to Ennerdale Lake.  Entitled the Rowrah & Keneonhead Mineral Railway, it was built by the Scottish iron firm of BAIRD Ltd., and served a number of iron ore mines.  On this account, the Distington-Rawrah branch of the C. & W. was always known as "Baird's Line."  It was taken up, except for the portion between Arlecdon and Rowrah, in 1939.
Leaving the main line at Rowrah Branch Junction, at the foot of the incline down from Moresby Parks to Distington, the branch commenced with a short length of 1 in 70 with two curves, one of 10 chains and the other of 15 chains radius.  This was followed by just over 2 miles of 1 in 44, plentifully interspersed with sharp curves up to Oatlands.  Here there was a colliery (now closed) and a small station.  The latter served the nearby mining village of Pica.  After a brief stretch of 1 in 990 there was a mile of 1 in 52 to the summit of the branch, which is about 600 feet above sea-level-the highest point on the C. & W. at 1 in 60 and crosses the "dip" on a high embankment which has a curve of 14 chains radius.  This was always known as "Brownrigg's Curve."  There is still the eastern side of the valley to be negotiated, so up climbs the track once more on a gradient of 1 in 64 for nearly a mile, before the final run down through Arlecdon to Rowrah.  Shortly after leaving Distington, and again before reaching the second summit before Arlecdon, there are some quite deep rock cuttings.
To celebrate the completion of the line to Workington a dinner was given on October 18th, 1879, at the Assembly Rooms, in Workington.  the Chairman (MR. H.F. CURWEN) made a lengthy speech at this function in which he referred in the following terms to the working agreement with the Furness Railway:
" The working arrangement was advantageous to both sides.  the Furness, having their rolling stock and locomotives in the district (at Moor Row,)  would work the railway more cheaply than themselves, and so give them an interest in the development of the traffic which they had the means of turning to their own benefit, because it was by the Furness Railway that they would get access to the Midland and the railways connected with it (cheers.)  He had no doubt that the Furness would carry out the arrangement in a fair spirit, and that they would, as they were bound to do under the agreement, avail themselves of the power and authority which the agreement gave them to the benefit of the Company and themselves as well."
Continuing, MR. CURWEN said:
" There is just one hint I would like to let fall in the presence of MR. COOK (The Furness Secretary,)  and that is that they might afford us the use of more modern coaches than those in which I have had to travel during the past fortnight (loud cheers and laughter.)
"I noticed one coach labelled 'F.R. No. J.'  As the Furness Railway was constituted in about the year 1800 (!!), it is quite clear that this being the fourth carriage, it must be nearly 80 years old (laughter.)  I had one satisfaction in contemplating this carriage and that was that it is quite evident that since the time when it was constructed the people of Cumberland must have considerably increased in bulk, as the door of this particular coach was so narrow that I had to enter it sideways (loud laughter.)  I throw out these friendly hints for MR. COOK'S consideration and I am glad to see that he is making a note of them while I speak."
Concluding his speech, MR. CURWEN said their agreement with the Furness was "for better or for worse" and he hoped that there would never need to be an appeal for "restitution of conjugal rights."  He then proposed the health of the Working Company - The Furness Railway.
On behalf of the London & North-Western Railway, MR. BEDFORD made a friendly speech and the whole proceedings went off well.
Although there was an improvement in the passenger stock provided by the Furness compared with that which drew such uncomplimentary remarks from MR. CURWEN when the line to Workington was opened, the C. & W. rarely saw anything better than 6-wheeled stock.  Of course the passenger traffic was a very secondary consideration and rarely consisted of more than five or six trains each way between Moor Row and Siddick Junction.  A service was also run on Saturdays and Market Days for Workington to Seaton and from Distington to Oatlands Colliery Halt ( for Pica mining village) and Arlecdon on the Rowrah afternoon and an early and late evening trip back.  Miner's trains were also run up the Harrington mineral line and long the private track leading to the Lowca Colliery and By-Product Plant of the Workington Iron and Steel Co. (later the United Steel Company.)  The regular passenger trains on the main line were usually worked by the little 2-4-2 Furness tanks which had been re-built from the 2-4-0 tender engines of the '80's.  In the very early days some of the 2-2-2 well tanks were employed.  Towards 1922, when the 2-4-2 tanks were worn out, a couple of MR. Pettigrew's 0-6-0 tanks did the job, assisted by one of the 4-4-2 passenger tank engines.
Mineral traffic was shared between a number of the ex-W.C. & E. saddle-tanks; one or two "Neddies"; and a number of re-built and un-rebuilt "Sharpie" 0-6-0's.  Latterly both versions of MR. PETTIGREW'S "Cleator" 0-6-2 tanks did a lot of work on the system.
On the whole the Cleator & Workington's own engines worked mostly at the northern end of the line and on the branches to Moss Bay and Harrington Ironworks.  They were briefly described later in this chapter.
So long as the iron and coal trades were brisk, the line carried a heavy volume of traffic.  It served a number of industrial concerns.  All the Durham coke for the blast furnaces of Whitehaven Haematitie Iron Company at Cleator Moor was brought from Siddick or Workington, and to Distington Iron Company's plant as well.  There was also the pig iron from both these works to be dealt with.  The railway also carried all the output from the Moresby colliery, and from pits at Broughton Moor, beyond Seaton on the Northern Extension Line.  The branches leading to the ironworks at Moss Bay and Harrington fed both iron ore and limestone into the plants, and coke produced locally at Lowca.  On the mineral branch from Distington to Rowrah, via Oatlands and Arlecdon, there was a steady traffic in limestone and iron ore from the pits and quarries between Frizington and Lamplugh.
During the 1914-1918 War some unusual ( and what to-day would be regarded as quite unorthodox) methods of train working from Distington up to Moresby Parks were in forced.  In order to cope with the heavy traffic it was customary to couple two goods trains together, when one was working through to Moor Row and the other to Moresby Colliery Sidings.  A bank engine was then attached at the rear.  Thus the train engine of the load for Moresby Park was also the banker for the Moor Row engine.  No definite limit seems to have been set to train loadings on rising gradients, provided the necessary banking power was available.  Similar workings were in force from Cleator Moor.  The writer recalls seeing a remarkable train proceeding up the incline to Moresby Parks from the south, somewhere around the year 1918.  There were two complete trains coupled together.  At the head was an exW.C. & E. 0-6-0 saddle tank.  Banking this engine's load, and hauling a long train behind it was a "Sharpie" 0-6-0.  Finally at the rear were TWO banking locomotives: a 0-6-0 "Neddie" tank and another ex -W.C. & E. saddle tank engine.  Unfortunately, no record was made of the total number of wagons which made up this remarkable load, but it must have been pretty considerable.
Apparently the authorities were much more stringent about maximum loads on falling gradients, in case of any possible break-away.  The most powerful Furness engines (with 18" cylinders,)  were limited to 45 loaded, 65 empties and 50 coke wagons.  The smaller engines were restricted to 35 loaded and 50 empty wagons of any description.  A single banked load was not allowed to exceed 65 empties.  These limits were for gradients in excess of 1 in 70.
There were no Sunday trains on the Cleator & Workington Railway, except on the Lowca and Derwent Works branches and these were worked by the Lowca Colliery engines.  They consisted of a couple of workmen's passenger trains and some coal and coke trips from Lowca to the Derwent blast furnaces.
Since the C. & W. was built primarily as a mineral carrying railway the permanent way was substantial, the rails being 88 lbs. to the yard.
The Furness engines working on the line were mostly stationed at Moor Row shed, but there were a number at Workington (Central,)  where most of the engines owned by the company were also stabled.  The latter were all saddle tanks (0-6-0's,)  very similar in design to those supplied to the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway.  The first batch were built by Stephenson's and all had 4 ft. wheels; 16 in. cylinders, and 140 lbs. pressure.  They all bore names, mostly of the residences of the various directors of the company.  In 1922 the C.& W. owned 10 engines, the last three being supplied by PECKETT'S of Bristol (2) and E. B. WILSON'S of Leeds (1).  They were named respectively "Hutton Hall," "Millgrove" and "Skiddaw Lodge."  They were almost entirely confined to duties on the mineral branches round Workington.  "Hutton Hall" and "Millgrove" had cylinders 18x24 ins., wheels 4 ft. 6 ins. dia.  and a wheelbase of 14 feet.  their saddle tanks held 1,400 gallons of water and their weight was 50 1/2 tons in working order.
In addition to Moor Row shed, there was one at Workington (Central) and Siddick Junction.  The former was a small two-locomotive affair.  Both were built to the standard Furness pattern.
As already stated, the Furness supplied all the coaching stock for the C. & W., and most of the remaining rolling stock as well.  The principal exception was a type of high-sided mineral wagon, with a carrying capacity of 12 or 15 tons, which could be used for carrying iron ore, coal and coke.  Stock of this type was painted dark red with "C. & W." painted in large white letters on the sides.  There were also a number of 10 ton wagons with wooden buffer stops.
In the year after the end of the 1914-1918 War, the issued capital of the Cleator & Workington Railway was £551,910, of which £ 260,010 was Ordinary Stock.
At the Annual Meeting in 1917 the Chairman (Sir John Ainsworth) said he looked forward to the day when all the small railways in West Cumberland would be amalgamated, and in 1919 it was rumoured that the United Steel Company were anxious to obtain the bulk of the Ordinary Shares.  An offer of £80 per £100 of the stock was made to the shareholders about this time, the last official quotation in 1918 being £50.  In 1919 the number of passengers carried was 644,835 and the amount of goods and minerals was 804,538 tons.
Both these figures were for traffic originating on the system.  Loaded goods train mileage and shunting mileage was almost exactly the same; just under 29,000 miles.
From the beginning of the present century the dividends paid were remarkably consistent, never falling below 3% or rising above 4 1/2%.  The average annual income was around £ 25,000 (net.)
The following is a list of the ten locomotives owned by the C. & W. at the end of 1922:
1     Rothersyke          0-4-0T     Fletcher, Jennings     No. 1 and 2 were
2     Ennerdale           0-4-0ST   Barclay                      contractor's locomotives taken over by the C. & W.R.
3     Brigham Hill        0-6-0ST  Stephenson                Built 1894
4     South Lodge          do             do                         Built 1884
5     Moresby Hall          do             do                         Built 1890
6     Ponsonby Hall        do             do                         Built 1896
7     Haycroft                  do       Fletcher, Jennings     Taken over by the United Steel Co.
8     Hutton Hall              do       Peckett                       Built 1907
9     Millgrove                 do              do                         Built 1913
10    Skiddaw Lodge      do       E. B. Wilson
No. 1, "Rotherskye," was a side tank and like No. , "Haycroft," was built locally at the Lowca Foundry of MESSRS. FLETCHER, JENNINGS and Company.
All engines carried their name-plates, with raised brass letters, on the tank sides and the number on an oval brass plate on the sides of the cab.  The domes were of polished brass.  Like the locomotives of the W. C. & E. R. all C. & W. engines were fitted with two sets of buffers for dealing with wagons having wooden buffer stops and those of the chaldron type.
As already stated, it is beyond the scope of this book to go into any detail about the course of events on the Furness system after this absorption into the London Midland & Scottish Railway in 1923.  I am only one among many natives of the territory which the Furness served who feel that the area gained little by the Grouping.  In all fairness however it must be stated that the L.M. & S. R. were to experience a long period of trade depression which culminated in a large portion of the ex-F.R. territory being scheduled as a "Distressed Area;"  thus a policy of "economy and re-trenchment" was bound to come sooner or later.
Ever since the last war, the iron trade in Furness and West Cumberland has declined steadily.  Many mines in both districts have been worked out and others closed down as uneconomical.  In 1919, between Carnforth and Workington, there were no less than eleven blast furnace plants in active production: to-day there are only four.
Bus competition also became sever in the late 20's and was most keenly felt by the railway in the Cleator District where many of the stations were some distance from the villages and townships which they served.  The result was the closing to passenger traffic of the whole of the Cleator & Workington system and the Joint Line from Moor Row to Marron Junction in April, 1931.  Before long the line to Egremont and Sellafield followed suit (in January, 1935,)  and the branch from Barrow to Rampside and Piel as well.
Of the closed lines, the following mineral branches have been taken up: The whole of the Gilgarron branch, except for that portion between Parton and Lowca Colliery sidings; "Baird's Line" ( from Distington to Rowrah Junction)  and that portion of the W. & W. Northern Extension beyond Buckhill Colliery.
North of Barrow, the direct line into the iron and steelworks of the Barrow Haematite Steel Company was abandoned by taking out the junction at Hindpool.  Traffic for the works from the north since then has had to be worked round via Barrow Central and St. Luke's Junction.
For a time the passenger service on the Lakeside Branch was withdrawn, but nowadays (apart from the period of the World War)  it has been re-instituted as a summer service only in connection with the Windermere Lake steamers.  Since 1940 the passenger trains were also cancelled on the Arnside-Hindcaster branch, but doubtless these will be re-instated when normality returns.
Another more cheerful sign is the restoration after nearly 15 years, of a passenger service on a portion of the West Cumberland Joint Line - between Moor Row, Egremont and Sellafield.  Put on again mainly as a result of continued local agitation, it gives this area some measure of direct communication with the south.
But there are already signs that the territory of the old Furness Railway is staging a modest but steady industrial "come-back."  This is all the more satisfactory when it becomes evident that the revival is not due to the resuscitation of the heavy industries, but rather to new and varied ones which should bring permanent prosperity to a hard-hit district.  Doubtless the L. M. & S. R. Will realise this fact in due course and the railway traveller between Carnforth and Whitehaven will get the facilities which he deserves, whether he be on business or pleasure bent.  Meanwhile, all honour to the work started by "Old Coppernob" and her sisters in 1846 and culminating in the "swansong" of the big "jumbos" produced by MR. Rutherford in 1920.