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The Armorial Bearings of the City of Carlisle
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carefully followed in the Clifford and Hay arms, and in those assigned to the City of Carlisle, while the other tinctures are scored correctly, scoring being substituted for Speed’s lettering. It is perfectly clear that Mr. Jollie or his artists took their arms, including the Carlisle ones, from Speed’s second edition of his map. [h]

   In November 1798 Mr. Jollie, who was a man of great enterprise, brought out the Carlisle Journal. He headed it with the coat of arms whose history we have been discussing, and filled up a column or two with an account of Carlisle, taken, as no doubt he took the arms, from his County History, i.e., Hutchinson, but by now, better informed, he scores the base argent and azure. Both on the plate in his history, and on the Journal, he makes it of four pieces. The Journal used this heading for many years, and no doubt familiarised people with it: their present heading was adopted in 1838.

   Jollie was the pioneer of several enterprising local publishers and printers, Jefferson, the Thurnams, and others, who have all adopted this coat as the arms of Carlisle, some giving four, others six pieces in the base. It also appears on the cheques of the local banks, who one and all score the base as argent and gules!

   Throughout the whole series of the engravings of this coat from Speed, through Jollie, Jefferson, and Thurnam, down to the present Corporation printers, runs one unmistakeably proof that all are descended from Speed: it is in the Lion and his beard. The same vast and extraordinary beard runs through the whole series, and proves their parentage. [i]


[h]  An odd deviation from Speed is to be noticed: the spears of Mercatus are placed bend sinister-wise! and Harcla’s martlet looks to the sinister, and is in a canton sinister! In the arms of Prince Rupert, Duke of Cumberland, the lions ramp to the sinister! This is not the error of an engraver forgetting to reverse the drawing, for the lion in the “City Arms” is passant to the dexter. But the three shields on which these anomalies appear are ranged on the sinister side of the central oval, the “City Arms” to the dexter; there has evidently been a design to make the animals, &c., look outward for symmetry!

[i]  In the Topographical Dictionary of England, published by S. Lewis in 1831, in four large quarto volumes, an engraving is given of this coat as the arms of Carlisle. The compiler in his preface states that Sir George Naylor and other gentleman at the Heralds’ College furnished the Arms. This only comes round to the 1724 edition of Guillim, and the MS Book of “no great authority.” But the engraving given in Lewis is the parent of some of the modern editions of this coat; it has the base wavy of six, the first example that I find. The castle, too, here first changes from its old form of a simple tower to two towers joined by a curtain wall in which a gate. About sixty copies of this work were subscribed or in Carlisle.